A language of Bhutan

ISO 639-3: tsj

Population 138,000 in Bhutan (1993 Van Driem). Population total all countries: 143,000.
Region Eastern and southeastern Bhutan, especially in Tashigang and Dungsam. Also spoken in China, India.
Alternate names   Sangla, Sharchagpakha, Sarchapkkha, Shachopkha, Shachobiikha, Sharchhopkha, Tsangla, Menba, Monpa
Dialects Standard variety in Tashigang. Lexical similarity 40% to 50% with Bumthangkha, 48% with Dzongkha, 41% with Adap.
Classification Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Bodish, Tshangla
Language development Literacy rate in first language: below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: below 5%. Uchen script; Tibetan script in India. Grammar. Bible portions: 2000.
Comments A speaker is called 'Schachop' in Dzongkha, 'Sharchhokpa' (pl.). Not the same as Tsanglo (Angami Naga) of Assam, India. It may also be classified as North Assam, Monpa. SOV; numbers and adjectives follow noun head; singular-dual-plural personal pronouns; nontonal. Buddhist.

Also spoken in:
Language name   Tshangla
Population 5,000 in China (1997).
Region Southeastern Tibet, Motuo (Medoz, Medog) and Linzhi (Ngingchi) counties, including Padma-bkot (Pemak), just north of (and possibly on both sides of) the McMahon line, and clustered near the Tshangpo (Siang) River.
Alternate names   Sangla, Tsangla, Tsanglo, Cangluo Menba, Canglo Monba, Motuo Menba, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Central Monpa
Language use Vigorous. All domains. Positive language attitude.
Comments Part of the Moinba nationality. Not the same as Tsanglo (Angami Naga) of India. Their speech is nearly identical to that of eastern Bhutan, except for the loss of initial voicing and tonogenesis in Tibet. Differs from Cuona Menba in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: rice. Buddhist (Lamaist).

Language name   Tshangla
Region Western Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng District, in and around Dirang, Bishing, and several other villages; West Siang District, former Padma-bkod Region, Tuting, Mechuka circles, Mechuka, Opu, Bona, Galling, Korfu, Dorgling Halung, Tuting villages.
Alternate names   Tsangla, Sangla, Cangluo Menba, Memba, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Motuo, Central Monpa
Language use Adi Bokar, Adi Ramo, Hindi and English spoken by some (West Siang).



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A Scheduled Tribe in India. Chowdhury separates Memba (Tshangla-speakers) and Khamba as different tribes in Siang District, both separate from Monpa, in Kameng District. Breton says not the same as Moinba. They claim to have come from Bhutan. Many young people attend school. Sparse forest. Swidden agriculturalists: rice, wet cultivation. Buddhist.