A language of India

ISO 639-3: adi

Population 110,000 in India (1997 BSI). Population includes 1,200 Palibo. Population total all countries: 111,088.
Region Arunachal Pradesh, East, West, and Upper Siang districts, Upper Subansiri and Dibang Valley districts; Assam, north hills of Assam Valley, between Bhutan and the Buruli River. Also spoken in China.
Alternate names   Abhor, Abor, Boga'er Luoba, Lhoba, Luoba
Dialects Ashing, Bokar (Boga'er Luoba), Bori, Karko, Komkar, Milang, Minyong, Padam (Standard Adi), Pailibo, Pangi, Pasi, Ramo, Shimong, Tangam. Sun (1993) lists Tani languages and dialects as Apatani, Milang, Bokar, Damu, Mising, Padam, Bangni, Tagin, Sagli, south Aya, Leli, and perhaps Pailibo, Ramo, Asing, Bori, Pasi, Panggi, Simong, Minyong, Karok, Hill Miri, and some northern and western dialects of Nisi. Intelligible with Adi Galo but they are sociolinguistically distinct. A different language from Yidu Lhoba.
Classification Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani
Language use Speakers also use Assamese, Hindi, or Nepali.
Language development Roman script; Tibetan script in China. Grammar. NT: 1988.
Comments Adi is a Scheduled Tribe in India with several subgroups. 'Adi', meaning 'hillman', has been used as a cover term for the eastern Tani group of languages. SOV; particles indicate grammatical relations; long-short vowel distinction; most words polysyllabic; loans mainly from Tibetan. Agriculturalists: rice, grain, beans, fruit, eggs; hunters. Traditional religion, Christian.

Also spoken in: China
Language name   Luoba, Boga'er
Population 1,088 in China (1999 Ouyang Jueya). 400 monolinguals.
Region Lhunze and Mainling counties in southeast Tibet, south of the Yaluzangjiang River in the Luoyu area.
Alternate names   Lhoba, Lho-Pa, Boga'er, Bengni-Boga'er, Bokar, Adi-Bokar, Adi, Abor
Language use Vigorous. All domains. All ages. 55% use Tibetan or Cona Monba as second language. 23% can also speak Tibetan and Chinese in Mainling and Lhunze counties, and Tibetan, Chinese, and Monba in Medog County. Elementary schools use Tibetan, Chinese, or Monba.
Language development 27% attended school, 31% have some degree of literacy, 0.8% have a university degree.


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Part of the Lhoba nationality. Different from Lowa (Loba) in Nepal. Not a written language. Mountain slope, plateau. Evergreen and bamboo forest. Swidden agriculturalists: rice, maize, barley, cotton; hunters; forestry; animal husbandry; fishermen. Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).