Iu Mien

A language of China

ISO 639-3: ium

Population 383,000 in China (1995 Wang and Mao). Population total all countries: 818,685.
Region Dayao Mountains, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong, Yunnan, Hunan, and Guizhou provinces. In Guizhou Province Mien are in Rongjiang, Congjiang, and Libo counties; in Guangdong Province, in Ruyuan County. Also spoken in Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Laos, Myanmar, New Zealand, Switzerland, Thailand, USA, Viet Nam.
Alternate names   Youmian, Yiu Mien, Yao, Mien, Mian, Myen, Highland Yao, Pan Yao, Ban Yao
Dialects The different dialects may not be intelligible. Biao Mon may be a dialect of Iu Mien. Differences from other Mienic languages are in the tone system, consonants, vowel quality, vowel length. Chinese linguists consider the Iu Mien spoken in Changdong, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi to be the standard. May be closest to Mandarin. Lexical similarity 78% with Kim Mun, 70% with Biao-Jiao Mien, 61% with Dzao Min.
Classification Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin
Language use Vigorous. All domains. All ages. Positive language attitude. Children tend to be monolingual. Spoken and written Chinese are also in use.
Language development Roman script. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 19751991.
Comments The largest language in the Yao nationality. Ethnic groups: Hua Lan, Hua, Hung, Cao Long, Coc, Khoc, Quan Coc, Quan Trang, Son Trang, Sung, Tien (Tiao Tchaine), Yaya. The Laka, Mun, Bunu languages, plus speakers of other Mienic and Hmongic languages, and ethnic Yao who speak Chinese, are officially included under the Yao nationality in China. 'Pingdi Yao' (Piongtuojo, Piongtoajeu) is a variety of Chinese with 1,000,000 speakers, half of whom are members of the Yao nationality, in Hunan-Guangxi border and Guangdong Province. Tonal, 7 tones. Mountain slope, plains. Peasant agriculturalists: paddy rice; hunters; lumbermen; weavers; embroiderers. Daoist, traditional religion.

Also spoken in: Laos
Language name   Iu Mien
Population 20,250 in Laos (2000).
Alternate names   Mien, Man, Yao, Myen, Highland Yao
Language use Some language shift.
Comments Almost all refugees in the West have come from Laos. 600 to 1,500 meters. Daoist, traditional religion.

Language name   Iu Mien
Population 40,000 in Thailand (1999).
Region Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Phayao, Lampang, Kampaengphet, Nan, and Sukhothai provinces, 159 villages.
Alternate names   Mien, Yao, Mian, Myen, Yiu Mien, Youmian, Highland Yao, Pan Yao
Dialects Chiangrai.
Language use Speakers also use Northern Tai.
Comments All 'Yao' and 'Mien' in Thailand are Iu Mien. Swidden agriculturalists: rice; hunters; weavers; embroiderers. Daoist, traditional religion.

Viet Nam
Language name   Iu Mien
Population 350,000 in Viet Nam (1999 H. Purnell).
Region Throughout the highland regions of northern Viet Nam, about 16,000 in Dac Lak Province in the south.
Alternate names   Kim Mien, Yu Mien, Mien, "Mn", Yao, Myen, Highland Yao, Dao Do, Red Dao, "Dong", "Trai", "X", Du, Yao Kimmien, Yao Ogang, Dao Thanh Phan
Dialects Dao Do, Deo Tien, Dao Lan Tien, Dao Lo Gang, Cham, Quan Chet, Quan Trang.
Language use The language is the same as in Thailand and Laos. Not all ethnic Yao speak Mien; many speak Chinese. Part of the population figure given for Viet Nam may be for Kim Mun.

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An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Daoist, traditional religion