Horpa

A language of China

ISO 639-3: ero
 

Population 38,000 (1999 Sun Hongkai). 15,000 monolinguals.
Region Danba (=Rongzhag), Daofu (Dawu), Luhuo, Xinlong (Nyagrong) counties of the Ganzi (Garz) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of western Sichuan, and Jinchua (Quqn) County of the Aba (Ngawa) Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of northwestern Sichuan. Central and eastern Daofu County, Chengguan District, Wari, Xiajia, and Muru townships of Wari District, and Shazhong township of Bamei District; and central and northwestern Danba County, in Geshiza, Bianer, and Dandong townships of Dasang District, Donggu township in Chuangu District, Bawang and Jinchuan townships of Jinchuan District; of Ganzi Prefecture, an area traditionally known as the five parts of Horpa territory. Scattered communities are also in adjacent Luhuo (in Renda township of Xialatuo District, and Xinlong in Manqing, Zhuwo, and Duoshan townships of Hexi District).
Alternate names   Hor, Hrsk, Ergong, Danba, Western Jiarong, Pawang, Bawang
Dialects Daofu (Daofuhua, Taofu, Western Horpa, Western Ergong), Geshiza (Geshitsa). Hongkai Sun (1999) lists 4 dialects: Western as above, Central (Danba), Eastern (Jinchuan, Lawurong), Northern (Rangtang). Huang Bufan and Sun Tianxin suggest that the eastern variety is a separate language.
Classification Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, rGyarong
Language use All domains. All ages. Greater use by adults than young people. Children are mainly using Chinese. Indifferent language attitude. 2,000 can also use both Chinese and Tibetan. 20,000 use Chinese, 1,000 use Tibetan.
Language development Dictionary. Grammar.
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Part of the Tibetan nationality. SOV; adjectives and number-classifier constructions follow noun heads; affixation; compounding; reduplication; complex consonant cluster onsets; nontonal. Mountain slope, riverine. Forests. Agriculturalists; animal husbandry: chickens, pigs, sheep. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.