Languages of China

People's Republic of China with 1,3 billion inhabitants whereof 55 official minority nationalities with a total of 91,200,314 or 7% of the population. Han Chinese 93.% of the population. The National or official language is: Mandarin Chinese.
Regional languages: Daur, Kalmyk-Oirat, Lu, Peripheral Mongolian, Central Tibetan, Uyghur, Xibe and Northern Zhuang.
Literacy rate: 73% to 76.5%. Also includes Central Khmer (1,000), Parsi (5,000), Portuguese (2,000), Shan, Tai Dam (10,000), Tai Dn (10,000).
Blind population: 2,000,000.
Deaf population: 3,000,000.
Deaf institutions: 7.
The number of languages listed for China is 236. Of those, 235 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

Living languages:

Name: Number: Description:  Dialect:  Type:

Achang

27,708 in China.  Population total all countries: 29,408. 
Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture and Baoshan District, western Yunnan Province, along the Myanmar border, Longchuan, Lingbe, and Luxi counties. Also spoken in Myanmar.
Alternate names: Ngochang, Achung, Atsang, Ach'ang, Acang, Ahchan, Ngacang, Ngatsang, Ngachang, Ngac'ang, Ngo Chang, Mnghsa, Maingtha.
Dialects: Longchuan, Lianghe, Luxi. The 3 dialects are reported to not be inherently intelligible to one another's speakers. Longchuan differs more from the other dialects, and has more Dai loanwords. Lianghe and Luxi use many Chinese loanwords. There are also Burmese loanwords. Related to Phun, Maru, Lashi, Zaiwa. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
More information.

Ai-Cham

2,700
(2000)
 13 villages in Di'e and Boyao townships in Libo County of the Qiannan Buyi-Miao Autonomous Prefecture in southern Guizhou Province.
Alternate names: Jiamuhua, Jinhua, Atsam. 
Dialects: Di'e, Boyao. The two dialects listed have phonological differences, but are largely intelligible to each other's speakers. Similar to Mak.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Ainu

6,570
(2000)
Yengixar (Shule) town, Hanalik and Paynap villages in the Kashgar area, and Gewoz village near Hoban; Hetian, Luopu, Moyu, Shache, Yingjisha and Shulekuche counties of southwestern Xinjiang Autonomous Region.
Alternate names: Aynu, Aini, Abdal. 
Dialects: The language has the same grammar as Uyghur but much Persian vocabulary. Some consider it to be a dialect of Uyghur, others to be an Iranian language heavily influenced by Uyghur. The government counts them as Uyghur.
Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
More information.

Akha

130,000 in China.
(1990)
 Southwest Yunnan, Xishuangbanna Prefecture.
Alternate names: Kaw, Ekaw, Ko, Aka, Ikaw, Ak'a, Ahka, Khako, Kha Ko, Khao Kha Ko, Ikor, Aini, Yani. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya 
More information.

Atuence

590,000 Yunnan-Tibet border.
Alternate names: Atuentse, Anshuenkuan Nyarong, Nyarong, Nganshuenkuan.
Dialects: It has been identified as Central Bodish, Archaic Nomad Dialect of Tibetan, or Central Tibetan.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central  Tibetan.
More information.

Ayi

2,200
(2004)
 Fugong and Gongshan counties, Nujiang Nu-Lisu Autonomous Prefecture of northwestern Yunnan.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
More information.

Bai, Central

800,000
(2003)
 Northwest Yunnan, Jianchuan, Heqing, Lanping, Eryuan, and Yunlong.
Alternate names: Pai, Minjia, Minchia, Minkia, Labbu, Nama, Leme. 
Dialects: Jianchuan, Heqing, Lanping, Eryuan, Yunlong. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bai 
More information.

Bai, Northern

40,000
(2003)
Northwest Yunnan, Nujiang, and Lanping.
Alternate names: Bijang Bai. 
Dialects: Nujiang, Lanping. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bai 
More information.

Bai, Southern

400,000
(2003)
 Northwest Yunnan, Dali, and Xiangyun provinces.
Dialects: Dali, Xiangyun. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bai 
More information.

Baima

11,000
(1999
 Sun Hongkai)
 Older adults and a few middle aged are monolingual. Ethnic population: 110,000. Pingwu, Nanping, and Songpan counties in north central Sichuan Province, and Wen County of Gansu Province.
Alternate names: Bai Ma, Pe. 
Dialects: Southern Baima (Pingwu Baima), Northern Baima (Wen Baima), Western Baima (Nanping Baima). Considered to be an independent language or related to Khams Tibetan. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Unclassified 
More information.

Biao

50,000
(1999
 Liang Min and
Zhang Junru)
 10,000 women and small children are monolingual. Villages in western Huaji County and neighboring areas in Fengkai County, Guangdong Province.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Biao Mon

20,000
(1995
Wang and Mao)
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Mengshan, Zhaoping, Pingle, Lipu, and Gongcheng counties.
Alternate names: Biaoman, Biao Mien, Min Yao, Sida Min Yao, Changping.
Dialects: Biao Mon (Min Yao), Shi Mun (Sida Min Yao). May be intelligible with some dialects of Iu Mien. Quite different from and unintelligible with Biao Jiao or its dialect Biaomin, also called 'Biao Mien'. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
More information.

Biao-Jiao Mien

43,000
(1995
Wang and Mao)
 Northeastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Quanzhou, Guanyang, and Gongcheng Yao Autonomous counties; southern Hunan Province, Shuangpai, and Daoxian counties.
Alternate names: Biao Chao, Byau Min. 
Dialects: Biao Min (Biaomin, Biao Mien, Dongshan Yao), Jiaogong Mian (Chao Kong Meng, Shikou). The two dialects are reported to be unintelligible. Quite different from and unintelligible with Biao Mon (Biaoman). Lexical similarity 70% with Iu Mien, 67% with Kim Mun, 58% with Dzao Min. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Biao-Jiao 
More information.

Bisu

2,000 in China.
(1999
Xu Shixuan)
500 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 3,000. Xishuangbanna area of southwestern Yunnan Province: in Mengzhe village of Menghai County, in the villages of Zhutang, Laba, Donglang, and Fubang in Lancang Couunty, in the villages of Jingxin, Fuyan, and Nanya in Menglian County, and in parts of Ximeng County. Possibly also in Laos and Myanmar. Also spoken in Thailand.
Alternate names: Mbisu, Misu, Mibisu, Mbi, Laomian, Laopin, Lawa, Lua. 
Dialects: Lanmeng, Huaipa, Dakao. Close to Mpi, Pyen, and Phunoi. There are some dialect differences based on Dai versus Lahu loanwords. Lexical similarity 36% with Hani, 32% with Lahu, 31% with Lisu. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
More information.

Bit

500 in China.
(1990
Svantesson)
 Southern Yunnan Province.
Alternate names: Khabit, Phsing, Phsin. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao 
More information.

Biyo

100,000
(1990
J-O Svantesson)
 Yunnan, near the Hani.
Alternate names: Bio, Biyue. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Bi-Ka 
More information.

Blang

24,000 in China.
(1990
J-O Svantesson)
 Population total all countries: 37,200. Southwestern Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, and the Simao and Lincang regions. Most live in Menghai and Shuangjiang counties. Some are scattered, living among Va (Wa). May also be in Laos. Also spoken in Myanmar, Thailand.
Alternate names: Bulang, Pulang, Pula, Plang, Kawa, K'ala, Kontoi. 
Dialects: Phang, Kem Degne. Dialects listed may be separate languages. Chinese sources list two dialects: Bulang (Blang Proper), and Awa (A'erwa). It is not known how these relate to the dialects listed above. Close to Wa. In Thailand, the group from Mae Sai came from Sipsongpanna, Yunnan, China, stayed in Myanmar for a while, and have been in Thailand since 1974. There are 6 to 10 dialects represented in one refugee village in Thailand. Samtao of Myanmar and China is not intelligible with Blang, but is closely related to Blang and Wa.
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Bulang 
More information.

Bogan

6,000
(2001)
Yunnan.
Alternate names: Bengan. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Palyu 
More information.

Bolyu

10,000
(1993)
 Far western Guangxi on the Guizhou border, Xilin and Longlin counties, in 2 groups. There may be some in Yunnan.
Alternate names: Lai, Palju, Palyu, Polyu. 
Classification:
Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Palyu 
More information.

Bonan

6,000
(1999
Junast)
Ethnic population: 10,000, including 6,000 Jishishan, 4,000 Tongren. Southwestern Gansu Province in the Jishishan Bao'an-Dongxiang-Sala Autonomous County of the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, and Bonan-speaking Tu in Tongren, eastern Qinghai Province.
Alternate names: Bao'an, Boan, Paoan, Paongan, Baonan. 
Dialects: Jishishan (Dahejia, Dajiahe, Dakheczjha), Tongren (Tungyen). Jishishan subdialects are Ganhetan and Dadun; Tongren subdialects are Nianduhu, Guomari, Gajiuri, and Lower Bao'an village. Jishishan has been influenced by Chinese, Tongren by Tibetan. There are phonological and grammatical differences between the two, and inherent intelligibility may be low. 
Classification:
Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongour
More information.

Bouyei

2,000,000 in China.
(1990
census)
 Population total all countries: 2,049,203. Guizhou-Yunnan plateau, mainly Buyi-Miao and Miao-Dong autonomous prefectures, Zhenning and Guanling counties, south and southwest Guizhou, and some in Yunnan Province, Luoping County, and Sichuan Province, Ningnan and Huidong counties. Also spoken in France, USA, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Buyi, Bui, Bo-I, Buyei, Buyui, Puyi, Pui, Pu-I, Pu-Jui, Pujai, Puyoi, Dioi, Tujia, Shuihu, Zhongjia, Chung-Chia. 
Dialects: Qiannan (Southern Guizhou, Bouyei 1), Qianzhong (Central Guizhou, Bouyei 2), Qianxi (Western Guizhou, Bouyei 3). Dialect continuum to Northern Zhuang. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
More information.

Bugan

3,000
(1996
Edmondson)
 Southern Guangnan and northern Xichou counties in southeastern Yunnan Province, Laowalong, Xinwalong, Jiuping, Shibeipo, Xinzhai, Manlong, and Nala villages.
Alternate names: Pukan, Hualo, Huazu. 
Dialects: 1 dialect. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified 
More information.

Bunu, Bu-Nao

258,000
(1995
McConnell)
 97,000 are monolingual. Ethnic population: 439,000. 100,000 ethnic Bunu speak Zhuang as first language. Western Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Du'an, Bama, Dahua, Lingyun, Nandan, Tiandong, Tianyang, Pingguo, Fengshan, Donglan, Hechi, Mashan, Bose, Tianlin, Leye, Tiandeng, Xincheng, Shanglin, Long'an, Debao, Laibin, Luocheng counties), Guizhou Province (Libo County), and Yunnan Province (Funing County).
Alternate names:
Punu, Bunao, Po-Nau. 
Dialects: Dongnu (Tung Nu), Nunu, Bunuo (Pu No), Naogelao (Nao Klao), Numao (Nu Mhou, Hong Yao). The dialects listed may be 5 languages, communication is difficult. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu 
More information.

Bunu, Jiongnai

1,078
(1999
Mao Zongwu)
 269 monolinguals. Eastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County.
Alternate names: Punu, Qiungnai, Kiong Nai, Jiongnai, Jiongnaihua, Hualan Yao.
Dialects: Very different from and unintelligible to speakers of surrounding Yao and other Bunu languages. Lexical similarity 52% with Bu-Nao Bunu.
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu 
More information.

Bunu, Wunai

18,442
(1995
McConnell)
 Western Hunan Province, Longhui, Xupu, Tongdao, Chenxi, Dongkou, Cengbu, and Xinning counties.
Alternate names: Punu, Wunai, Ngnai, Hm Nai. 
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu 
More information.

Bunu, Younuo

9,716
(1995
McConnell)
Northeastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Xing'an and Longsheng counties.
Alternate names:
Punu, Pu No, Younuo, Yunuo, Yuno.
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu 
More information.

Buriat, China

65,000
(1982 census)
Population includes 47,000 New Bargu, 14,000 Old Bargu, 4,500 Buriat. Hulun-Buyr District of Inner Mongolia, near Russian (Siberian) and Mongolian borders.
Alternate names: Buryat, Buriat-Mongolian, Northern Mongolian, Northeastern Mongolian, Bargu Buriat. 
Dialects: Bargu (Old Bargu, New Bargu), Khori, Aga. Officially included under Mongolian in China. Differs from Buriat of Mongolia and Russia because of influences from different languages. 
Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat 
More information.

Buxinhua

200
(1994)
 Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, southwestern Yunnan Province.
Classification:
Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified 
More information.

Buyang

2,772
(2000 WCD)
Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous District, Guangnan County, one location, and Funing County, Gula Township.
Dialects: Yalang, Ecun, Langjia. A number of dialects. Some similarities grammatically with Kam-Sui. Lexical similarity 38% with Pubiao, 34% with Lati, 32% with Northern Zhuang, 31% with Gelo, 28% with Dong, 24% with Laka, 23% with Hlai, 10% with Hmong, 6% with Mien. 
Classification:
Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
More information.

Cao Lan

40,000 in China.
(2002)
Alternate names: Caolan, San Chay, San Chi, "Man Cao-Lan", Sn-Chi, "Mn", Cao Lan-Sn Chi. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
More information.

Cao Miao

63,632
(2000WCD)
Liping county of southeastern Guizhou Province, Tongdao Dong Autonomous County of southwestern Hunan Province, and Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County of northeastern Guangxi, near Southern Dong, in small villages.
Alternate names: Mjiuniang, Grass Miao. 
Dialects: Close to Northern Dong and sometimes referred to as a special dialect of Dong. 
Classification:
Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Chinese Sign Language

3.000.000
(1986
 Gallaudet Univ.)
Ethnic population: 3,000,000 deaf persons in China. Also used in Malaysia, Taiwan.
Dialects: Shanghai Sign Language. There are several dialects, of which Shanghai is the most influential. Few signs of foreign origin. The varieties used in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Malaysia may have changed. 
Classification:
Deaf sign language 
More information.

Chinese, Gan

20,580,000
 (1984)
 Jiangxi and southeastern corner of Hubei including Dachi, Xianning, Jiayu, Chongyang, and parts of Anhui, Hunan, and Fujian provinces. Chang-Jing dialect includes the speech of Nanchang City, Xiuhui, and Jing'an; Yi-Liu includes Yichun (Ichun) in Jiangxi to Liuyang in Hunan.
Alternate names: Gan, Kan. 
Dialects: Chang-Jing, Yi-Liu, Ji-Cha, Fu-Guang, Ying-Yi. Marginally intelligible with Mandarin and Wu Chinese. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese, Hakka

25,725,000
in mainland China.
(1984)
Population total all countries: 29,937,959. Spoken in many parts of mainland China side by side with other dialects. Greatest concentration of speakers in eastern and northeastern Guangdong, otherwise especially in Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, and Sichuan. Also spoken in Brunei, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Indonesia (Java and Bali), Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, New Zealand, Panama, Singapore, South Africa, Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, USA.
Alternate names: Hakka, Hokka, Kejia, Kechia, Ke, Xinminhua, Majiahua, Tu Guangdonghua. 
Dialects: Yue-Tai (Meixian, Raoping, Taiwan Kejia), Yuezhong (Central Guangdong), Huizhou, Yuebei (Northern Guangdong), Tingzhou (Min-Ke), Ning-Long (Longnan), Yugui, Tonggu. Yue-Tai is now the standard dialect.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese, Huizhou

Not available. South Anhui Province and north Zhejiang Province.
Alternate names: Huizhou. 
Dialects:
Jixi, Xiuyi, Qide, Yanzhou, Jingzhan. Formerly considered to be part of the Jianghuai dialect of Mandarin, but now considered by many to be a separate major variety of Chinese. Dialects are reported to differ greatly from each other. Different from the Huizhou dialect of Hakka. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Jinyu

45,000,000
(1995)
 Mainly in Shanxi Province, with some in Shaanxi and Henan provinces.
Alternate names: Jinyu. 
Dialects: Formerly considered to be part of the Xibei Guanhua dialect of Mandarin, but now considered by many to be a separate major variety of Chinese. Unlike Mandarin in having contrastive glottal checked syllables and other distinctive features. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese, Mandarin

867,200,000
in mainland China.
(1999)
 70% of the population, including 8,602,978 Hui (1990 census). Other estimates for Hui are 20,000,000 or more. 1,042,482,187 all Han in China (1990 census). Population total all countries: 873,014,298. Covers all of mainland China north of the Changjiang River, a belt south of the Changjiang from Qiujiang (Jiangxi) to Zhenjiang (Jiangsu), Hubei except the southeastern corner, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, the northwestern part of Guangxi, and the northwestern corner of Hunan. Also spoken in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia (Java and Bali), Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, Mongolia, Philippines, Russia (Asia), Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, USA, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Mandarin, Guanhua, Beifang Fangyan, Northern Chinese, Guoyu, Standard Chinese, Putonghua, Hanyu. 
Dialects: Huabei Guanhua (Northern Mandarin), Xibei Guanhua (Northwestern Mandarin), Xinan Guanhua (Southwestern Mandarin), Jinghuai Guanhua (Jiangxia Guanhua, Lower Yangze Mandarin). Wenli is a literary form. Written Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect, but has been heavily influenced by other varieties of Northern Mandarin. Putonghua is the official form taught in schools. Hezhouhoua is spoken in the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture and Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of southern Gansu Province, and in neighboring areas in Qinghai Province. The grammar is basically Altaic or Tibetan, while the vocabulary and phonology is basically Northwestern Mandarin, or a relexified variety of Tibetan. Putonghua is inherently intelligible with the Beijing dialect, and other Mandarin varieties in the northeast. Mandarin varieties in the Lower Plateau in Shaanxi are not readily intelligible with Putonghua. Mandarin varieties of Guilin and Kunming are inherently unintelligible to speakers of Putonghua. Taibei Mandarin and Beijing Mandarin are fully inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. Nearly all first-language speakers in Taiwan speak with Min-influenced grammar and various degrees of Min-influenced pronunciation. Many of the educated strive to cultivate standard pronunciation. Grammatical differences of the Taiwan variety often appear in writing. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Min Bei

10,290,000 in China.
 (1984)
 Population total all countries: 10,294,000. Northern Fujian Province in 7 counties around Jian'ou. Also spoken in Singapore.
Alternate names: Northern Min, Min Pei. 
Dialects:
The Chinese now divide Chinese Min into 5 major varieties: Min Nan, Min Bei, Min Dong, Min Zhong, and Pu-Xian. Others say there are at least 9 varieties which are inherently unintelligible to one another's speakers.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Min Dong

8,820,252 in China.
 (2000 WCD)
 Population total all countries: 9,103,157. Area from Fu'an in northeastern Fujian to Fuzhou in east central Fujian. Also spoken in Brunei, Indonesia (Java and Bali), Malaysia (Peninsular), Singapore, Thailand.
Alternate names: Eastern Min. 
Dialects:
Fuzhou (Fuchow, Foochow, Guxhou). The prestige variety is that spoken in Fujian. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Min Nan

25,725,000
in mainland China.
(1984)
 2.5% of the population, including 1,000,000 Xiamen dialect (1988 census), 6,000,000 Quanzhou dialect (Quanzhoushi Fangyan Zhi). Population total all countries: 46,227,965. Southern Fujian, Guangdong, south Hainan Island, southern Zhejiang, southern Jiangxi provinces. Xiamen is spoken in southern Fujian, Jiangxi, and Taiwan; Hainan dialect in Hainan; Leizhou on the Leizhou peninsula of southwestern Guangdong; Chao-Shan in the far eastern corner of Guangdong in the Chaozhou-Shantou area; Longdu is a dialect island in the area around Zhongshan City and Shaxi in Guangdong south of Guangzhou; Zhenan Min in southeastern Zhejiang Province around Pingyang and Cangnan and on the Zhoushan archipelago of northeastern Zhejiang. Also spoken in Brunei, Indonesia (Java and Bali), Malaysia (Peninsular), Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, USA.
Alternate names: Southern Min, Minnan. 
Dialects: Xiamen (Amoy), Leizhou (Lei Hua, Li Hua), Chao-Shan (Choushan, Chaozhou), Hainan (Hainanese, Qiongwen Hua, Wenchang), Longdu, Zhenan Min. Xiamen has subdialects Amoy, Fujian (Fukien, Hokkian, Taiwanese). Amoy is the prestige dialect. Amoy and Taiwanese are easily intelligible to each other. Chao-Shan has subdialects Chaoshou (Chaochow, Chaochow, Teochow, Teochew) and Shantou (Swatow). Chao-Shan, including Swatow, has very difficult intelligibility of Amoy. Sanjiang is somewhat difficult for other dialect speakers. Hainan is quite different from other dialects. Min Nan is the most widely distributed and influential Min variety. There are two subdialects in Taiwan: Sanso and Chaenzo. Most Min Nan speakers in Thailand speak the Chaoshou dialect. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Min Zhong

Not aviable Area around Yong'an, Sanming, and Shaxian in central Fujian Province.
Alternate names: Central Min. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Pu-Xian

2,520,072 in China.
 (2000 WCD)
 Population total all countries: 2,600,810. Putian and Xianyou counties of east central Fujian Province. Also spoken in Malaysia (Peninsular), Singapore.
Dialects: Putian (Putten, Xinghua, Hinghua, Henghua, Hsinghua), Xianyou (Hsienyu). 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Wu

77,175,000
 (1984)
Jiangsu south of the Changjiang River, east of Zhenjiang, on Chongming Island in the mouth of the Changjiang, and north of the Changjiang in the area around Nantong, Haimen, Qidong, and Qingjiang, and in Zhejiang Province as far south as Quzhou, Jinhua, and Wenzhou.
Alternate names: Wu. 
Dialects: Taihu, Jinhua (Kinhwa), Taizhou, Oujiang, Wuzhou, Chuqu, Xuanzhou. Subdialects of the Taihu dialect are Piling, Su-Hu-Jia, Tiaoxi, Hangzhou, Lin-Shao, Yongjiang. Chuqu subdialects are Chuzhou, Longqu. Xuanzhou subdialects are Tongjing, Taigao, Shiling. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Xiang

36,015,000
 (1984)
Hunan Province, over 20 counties in Sichuan, and parts of Guangxi and Guangdong provinces.
Alternate names: Hunan, Hunanese, Xiang, Hsiang. 
Dialects:
Changyi, Luoshao, Jishu. Linguistically between Mandarin and Wu Chinese and marginally intelligible with them. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese,
Yue

52,000,000
 in mainland China.
 (1984)
Population includes 498,000 in Macau. Population total all countries: 54,810,598. Spoken in Guangdong (except for the Hakka speaking areas especially in the northeast, the Min Nan speaking areas of the east, at points along the coast as well as Hainan Island), Macau, and in the southern part of Guangxi. Also possibly in Laos. Also spoken in Australia, Brunei, Canada, Costa Rica, Honduras, Indonesia (Java and Bali), Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Panama, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand, United Kingdom, USA, Viet Nam.
Alternate names:
Yuet Yue, Gwong Dung Waa, Cantonese, Yue, Yueh, Yueyu, Baihua. 
Dialects:
Yuehai (Guangfu, Hong Kong Cantonese, Macau Cantonese, Shatou, Shiqi, Wancheng), Siyi (Seiyap, Taishan, Toisan, Hoisan, Schleiyip), Gaolei (Gaoyang), Qinlian, Guinan. The Guangzhou variety is considered the standard. Subdialects of Yuehai are Xiangshan, spoken around Zhongshan and Shuhai, and Wanbao around Dong Guan City and Bao'an County. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Choni

24,000
 (2002)
 Yunnan-Tibet border.
Alternate names:
Chona, Chone, Cone, Jone. 
Dialects: Hbrugchu. Related to Amdo Tibetan, Golog, and Kham. Possible dialects or related languages: Dpari (Dpalri, Dparus), Rebkong, Wayen, Horke.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Northern 
More information.

Cun

80,000
 (1999
Ouyang Jueya)
 59% are monolingual, mainly children, elders, and some women. South bank of Changhua River in north Dongfang county and north bank in Changjiang county, Hainan Island.
Alternate names:
Ngao Fon, Cunhua, Cun-Hua. 
Dialects: Lexical similarity 40% with Hlai. Many loanwords from Chinese.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
More information.

Darang Deng

850
 (1999
Sun Hongkai)
750 are monolingual. Chayu (Zay) County along the Dulai River valley in southeastern Tibet Autonomous Region, Xiazayu, Qu'antong, and Gayao townships, Nyingchi Prefecture.
Alternate names:
Darang, Digaro, Darang Dengyu. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Deng 
More information.

Daur

96,085 in China.
(1999
Dong Ying)
 About 24,270 are monolingual. Ethnic population: 121,357 (1990 census). Inner Mongolia, Hailar Prefecture, and border of Heilongjiang Province, Qiqihar Prefecture, and northwest Xinjiang, Tacheng Prefecture. Also spoken in Mongolia.
Alternate names: Dagur, Daguor, Dawar, Dawo'er, Tahur, Tahuerh. 
Dialects: Buteha (Bataxan), Haila'er (Hailar), Qiqiha'er (Qiqihar, Tsitsikhar). Definitely distinct from other Mongolian languages (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Some sources list Tacheng (spoken in Xinjiang) as a dialect. Some list Haila'er as a dialect of Evenki. 
Classification:
Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Dagur 
More information.

Dong, Northern

463,000 in China.
 (2003)
Area where southeastern Guizhou (Yuping Autonomous County), western Hunan, and northern Guangxi provinces meet, and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 20 contiguous counties. Also spoken in Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Kam, Gam, Tong, Tung, Tung-Chia. 
Dialects: Zhanglu speech in Rongjiang County, Guizhou Province is the standard variety. Reported to be close to Mulam. Lexical similarity 80% within Northern Dong, 71% between Northern Dong and Southern Dong. Lexical similarity 49% with Northern Zhuang, 46% with Laka, 29% with Laqua, 28% with Buyang, 26% with Hlai, 24% with Gelo, 22% with Lati, 6% with Hmong, 4% with Mien.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Dong, Southern

1,000,000 68% of the 1,463,000 Dong speakers speak Southern Dong. Area where southeastern Guizhou (Yuping Autonomous County), western Hunan, and northern Guangxi provinces meet, and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 20 contiguous counties.
Alternate names: Kam, Gam, Tong, Tung, Tung-Chia. 
Dialects: Close to Mulam. Lexical similarity 93% within Southern Dong, 71% between Northern Dong and Southern Dong. Lexical similarity 49% with Northern Zhuang, 46% with Laka, 29% with Laqua, 28% with Buyang, 26% with Hlai, 24% with Gelo, 22% with Lati, 6% with Hmong, 4% with Mien.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Dongxiang

250,000
 (1999 Junast)
About 80,000 monolinguals. Half in the Suonanba dialect. Ethnic population: 373,872 (1990 census). Southwest Gansu Province, mainly in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, 7 counties and a city, and in Yining and Huocheng counties in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
Alternate names: Tunghsiang, Santa, Tung. 
Dialects: Suonanba (Xiaonan), Wangjiaji, Sijiaji. Some intelligibility of Bonan. Minor dialect differences in pronunciation and borrowed words. Suonanba is considered to be the standard. 
Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongour
More information.

Drung

11,300 95% monolingual. Population includes 5,816 Drung (1990 census) and 5,500 ethnic Nung in the Nu nationality (1990 J-O Svantesson). About 6,000 in Nu River dialect, about 4,000 in Dulong River dialect. Dulong River dialect is spoken along both sides of the Dulong River in Gongshan Dulong-Nu Autonomous County in far northwestern Yunnan. Nu River dialect is spoken from Gongshan Dulong-Nu Autonomous County west to Chayu (Zay) County in Tibet.
Alternate names: Trung, Tulung, Dulong, Qiu, Rawang. 
Dialects: Dulong River (Derung River), Nu River. The dialects are reported to be inherently intelligible. The Nu River Drung is not the same as the Tibeto-Burman 'Nung', which are also in Myanmar. Not the same as Rawang in Myanmar. Other possible dialect names are Melam, Metu, Tamalu, Tukiumu. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish 
More information.

Dzao Min

60,000
 (1995 Wang and Mao)
Northern Guangdong Province, Liannan and Yangshan counties; southern Hunan Province, Yizhang County.
Alternate names: Yao Min, Zaomin, Yau Min, Ba Pai Yao. 
Dialects: Not intelligible with other Mienic languages. Lexical similarity 61% with Iu Mien, 59% with Kim Mun, 58% with Biao-Jiao Mien.
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Zaomin 
More information.

E

30,000
 (1992
 Edmondson)
 Northern Guangxi-Zhuang Autonomous Region, Rongshui Hmong Autonomous County, Yongle Township, and neighboring border areas of Luocheng Mulam Autonomous County. Yongle and nineteen surrounding villages.
Alternate names: Kjang E, "Wuse Hua", "Wusehua".
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
More information.

English

59,000 in China.
 (1993)
Mainly in Hong Kong.
Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
More information.

Ersu

9,000
 (1999
 Sun Hongkai)
About 500 older adults are monolingual. Ethnic population: 20,000 (2000 D. Bradley). South central Sichuan in the lower reaches of the Dadu River; Ganluo, Yuexi, Mianning, and Muli counties of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Shimian and Hanyuan counties of Ya'an Prefecture, Jiulong County of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in their own villages, and dispersed among the Yi, Chinese, and Tibetan peoples.
Alternate names: Duoxu, Erhsu.
Dialects: Ersu (Eastern Ersu), Duoxu (Central Ersu), Lisu (Western Ersu, Lz, Liru). Menia (Menya) is reported to be a dialect, but it is unclear how it relates to the other dialects. Dialect differences are reported to be great, so speakers do not understand each other.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Evenki

19,000 in China.
 (1999
 Chaoke)
3,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 29,000. Ethnic population: 34,000 in China (1995 M. Krauss). Hulunbuir Banners Ewenki, Moriadawa, Oronchon, Chen Bargu, Arong, Ergune East, and Huisuomu in Inner Mongolia; Nale Prefecture in Heilongjiang Province; and a few in Xinjiang. Also spoken in Mongolia, Russia (Asia).
Alternate names: Ewenke, Ewenki, Owenke, Solon, Suolun, Khamnigan.
Dialects: Haila'er, Aoluguya (Olguya), Chenba'erhu, Morigele (Mergel), Huihe (Hoy). Huihe is the standard dialect. Significant dialect differences from Russia.
Classification: Altaic, Tungus, Northern, Evenki 
More information.

Gahri

Unknown Alternate names: Bunan, Lahuli of Bunan. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
More information.

Gelao

3,000
 (1999
 Li Jinfang)
About 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 579,357. Daozhen and Wuchuan counties, Anshun and Bijie prefectures of southwest Guizhou Province, southern Yunnan (Zhuang-Miao Autonomous District at Maguan, Malipo, and nearby counties), Guangxi (Longlin Pan-Nationalities Autonomous County), and Hunan.
Alternate names: Gelo, Kelao, Keleo, Kehlao, Klau, Klo, Ilao, Khi, Chilao, Lao.
Dialects: Qau (Gao, Aqao), A'ou (A'uo), Hagei (Hakei, Hakhi), Duoluo (Toluo). The 'dialects' are reported to be 4 languages (2000 D. Bradley). Phonologically close to Hmong, grammatically to Northern Zhuang and Bouyei. Lexical similarity 45% with Southern Zhuang and Dai, 40% with Dong, 36% with Lati, 32% with Laqua, 29% with Buyang, 24% with Northern Zhuang, 24% with Dong, 22% with Laka, 27% to 40% with Hlai, 10% to 15% with Hmong, 5% to 15% with Mien. 
Classification:
Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi 
More information.

Geman Deng

200 in China.
 (1999
 Sun Hongkai)
About 180 monolinguals. Several townships in Chayu (Zay) County, Nyingchi Prefecture, on the tablelands on either side of the lower reaches of the Chayu (Zay) River in the southeastern corner of Tibet Autonomous Region, in their own small villages. Also spoken in India, Myanmar.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Deng 
More information.

Groma

12,840 in China.
 (1993)
Chambi Valley, between Sikkim and Bhutan, Tibet. Also spoken in India.
Alternate names: Tromowa.
Dialects: Upper Groma, Lower Groma. Possible dialects or related languages: Spiti, Tomo (Chumbi).
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
More information.

Guanyinqiao

50,000
 (1993 Lin)
 North central Sichuan, along the tributaries of the Jinchuan River in the southwestern tip of Maerkang County, northwestern Jinchuan County, and southeastern Rangtang County.
Alternate names: Zhongzhai, Western Jiarong. 
Dialects: Xiaoyili, Siyaowu, Muerzong, Guanyingqiao, Ergali, Taiyanghe, Ere, Yelong. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Western and Northern Jiarong have 60% lexical similarity.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, rGyarong 
More information.

Guiqiong

6,000
 (2000
 Sun Hongkai)
Fewer than 1,000 monolinguals, mainly older adults. Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Plateaus on both sides of the Dadu River north from Luding County in the Ganzi (Garz) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in west central Sichuan, and nearby in northwest Tianquan County. One town is Wasigou.
Alternate names: Guichong.
Dialects: Phonological dialect differences, but communication is possible. There are 2 or 3 varieties whose speakers find it difficult to understand each other.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Hani

500,000 in China
(1990
Svantesson)
60% of the official nationality are monolingual. Population total all countries: 518,657. Jingdong and Jinggu counties, Yuanjiang and Lancang (Mekong) River basins, Ailao Mountains, south Yunnan. None in Thailand. Also spoken in Laos, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Hanhi, Haw, Hani Proper. 
Dialects: Haya, Haohai, Bika. Divided into three dialect groups depending on whether and to what degree they have vowels with 'clear-muddy' vowel contrasts (P. B. Denlinger 1974). Sang Kong (Sangkong; 2,000) in Jing Hong Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous State, Yunnan, is officially under Hani, and may be a separate language. Kaduo is reported to be a separate language. Haya is the standard dialect. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya 
More information.

Hlai

667,000
(1999
 Ouyang Jueya)
 160,000 monolinguals (24% of population10% children and 14% adults). 432,000 Ha, 178,000 Qi, 52,000 Jiamao, 44,000 Bendi, 30,000 Meifu (1990 census).  Mountains in central and south central Hainan Province, southern China.
Alternate names: Li, Dai, Day, Lai, La, Loi, Le, Dli, Bli, Klai, Slai.
Dialects: Ha (Luohua-Hayan-Baoxian), Qi (Gei, Tongshi-Qiandui-Baocheng), Meifu (Moifau), Bendi (Zwn, Baisha-Yuanmen). Divided into 5 groups: Ha Li, Meifu Li, Qi Li, Local Li, Detou Li. Some varieties listed as dialects may be separate languages. J. Matisoff lists 8 varieties: Baoding, Xifang, Tongshi, Baisha, Qiandiu, Heitu, Yuanmen, Baocheng. Luowo speech of Ha dialect is considered to be the standard. Lexical similarity 30% with Northern Zhuang, 27% with Gelo, 26% with Dong and Laqua, 25% with Lati, 23% with Buyang.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Hlai 
More information.

Hmong Daw

232,700 in China.
 (2004)
 All Hmong in China: 7,000,000 (1999 Li Yunbing). Population total all countries: 514,895. Central and western Guizhou, southern Sichuan, and Yunnan. Also spoken in France, Laos, Thailand, USA, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: White Meo, White Miao, Meo Kao, White Lum, Peh Miao, Pe Miao, Chuan Miao, Bai Miao. 
Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong), Mong Leng, Petchabun Miao. In Thailand, also spoken by the Hmong Qua Mba people, an ethnic subgroup who live in Hmong Daw or Hmong Njua villages, except possibly in Nan Province, with no significant dialect differences. Largely intelligible with Hmong Njua. Mong Leng is intelligible with Hmong Daw, but sociolinguistic factors require separate literature. Probably the same as Peh Miao (White Miao).
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong Njua

1,000,000 in China.
 (1982)
Population includes 29,000 Bunu of the Yao nationality who speak it as first language. Population total all countries: 1,290,600. The area where Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces meet. Also spoken in French Guiana, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, USA, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Chuanqiandian Miao, Chuanchientien Miao, Sichuan-Guizhou-Yunnan Hmong, Tak Miao, Meo, Miao, Western Miao, Western Hmong. 
Dialects: Xiao Hua Miao (Atse, Small Flowery Miao), Tak Miao (Ching Miao, Green Miao, Blue Miao). Corresponds more or less to Ma's Western and Northern groups, and Purnell's Central and Western groups. Hua, the Miao (Hmongic) group, consists of 30 to 40 varieties which are inherently unintelligible to one another's speakers (Joakim Enwall 1993:12). A distinct variety called 'Gejiahua' with 50,000 speakers in Huangping County and Kaili City is believed to belong to Hmong Njua. It has 6 tones. Another distinct variety called 'Xijiahua' or 'Haiba Miano' with 50,000 speakers in Huangping, Fuquan, Weng'an, Longli, and Guiding counties and Kaili City, is believed to belong to Hmong Njua. Another distinct variety called 'Dongjiahua' in Majiang, Longli, and Xiuwen counties and Kaili City is believed to belong to Hmong Njua. Speakers are called 'Dongjian', 'Duck-Raising Miano', or 'Duck-Raising Gedou'. It shares many characteristics with Gejiahua. Largely intelligible with Hmong Daw. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong,
Central Huishui

30,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Gaopa, Huishui, Guiding, Changshun, Ziyun, and Pingba counties, Guiyang City Region, central portion.
Alternate names: Central Huishui Miao, Miao. 
Dialects: Inherently unintelligible to speakers of other Hmong varieties. 30 to 40 different Hmong (Miao) languages in China. Linguistic differences are great (Joakim Enwall 1993).
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong,
Central Mashan

50,000
(1987
 Wurm et al.)
. Southwestern Guizhou, Ziyun, Changshun, Luodian, Huishui, and Wangmo counties, central portion.
Alternate names: Central Mashan Miao, Miao. 
Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong.
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Chonganjiang

70,000
 (1982)
 Kaili City, Chong'an township, Huangping county, east central Guizhou.
Alternate names: Chong'anjiang Miao. 
Dialects: Gejiahua (Ge, Gedou Miao, Keh-Deo, Getou, Gedang, Huadou Miao). Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Gedou may be separate from Chong'anjiang. 
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong,
Eastern Huishui

20,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Gaopa, Huishui, Guiding, Changshun, Ziyun, and Pingba counties, Guiyang City Region, eastern portion.
Alternate names: Eastern Huishui Miao, Miao. 
Dialects: Inherently unintelligible to speakers of other Hmong varieties.
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong,
Eastern
Qiandong

200,000
 (1987
 Zhang and Cao)
 Qiandongnan Miao Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou, and eastward into Hunan Province.
Alternate names: Eastern Qiandong Miao, Hmu, Miao, Black Miao, Central Miao, Eastern East-Guizhou Miao. 
Dialects: Not intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Corresponds more or less to Ma's Central Miao and Purnell's Eastern Miao. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong 
More information.

Hmong,
Eastern Xiangxi

70,000
(1987
 Zhang and Cao)
 Western Hunan, Xiangxi Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture, and some places in Hubei.
Alternate names: Eastern Xiangxi Miao, Hsianghsi Miao, Red Miao, Meo Do, Red Meo, Ghao-Xong, Eastern West-Hunan Miao. 
Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong (Miao). 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Xiangxi 
More information.

Hmong, Luopohe

40,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
 Fuquan, Guiding, Longli, Kaiyang, and Kaili counties east of Guiyang, central Guizhou.
Alternate names: Luobohe Miao, Ximahe Miao, Xijia Miao.
Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Northeastern Dian

200,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Northwestern Guizhou, northeast and central Yunnan provinces.
Alternate names: A-Hmao, Diandongbei, Variegated Miao, Ta Hua Miao, Ta Hwa Miao, Big Flowery Miao, Hua Miao, Hwa Miao, Flowery Miao, Northeastern Yunnan Miao. 
Dialects: Inherently unintelligible to speakers of other Hmong varieties. 
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Northern Guiyang

60,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Suburbs of Guiyang City, Pingba, Zhenning, Kaiyang, Guiding, Qingzhen, and Anshun counties or towns, northern portion.
Alternate names: Northern Guiyang Miao, Miao. 
Dialects: Inherently unintelligible to speakers of other Hmong varieties. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Northern Huishui

50,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Gaopa, Huishui, Guiding, Changshun, Ziyun, and Pingba counties, Guiyang City Region, northern portion.
Alternate names: Northern Huishui Miao, Miao. 
Dialects: Inherently unintelligible to speakers of other Hmong varieties. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Northern Mashan

25,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Southwestern Guizhou, Ziyun, northern portions of Changshun, Luodian, Huishui, and Wangmo counties.
Alternate names: Northern Mashan Miao. 
Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Northern Qiandong

900,000
 (1987
 Zhang and Cao)
Northeast Yunnan and upper Cingshuiho River area of southeast Guizhou (southeast, south, and southwest Guizhou Autonomous areas, Songtao County, Guanling County, Ziyun County).
Alternate names: Northern Qiandong Miao, Chientung Miao, East Guizhou Miao, Hmu, Miao, Black Miao, Heh Miao, Hei Miao, Central Miao, Northern East-Guizhou Miao. 
Dialects: Not intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Corresponds more or less to Ma's Central Miao and Purnell's Eastern Miao. Hmu was chosen by the government as the standard variety. It is based on Yanghao, but with some similarities to other varieties. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong 
More information.

Hmong, Southern Guiyang

20,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Suburbs of Guiyang City, Pingba, Zhenning, Kaiyang, Guiding, Qingzhen, and Anshun counties or towns, southern portion.
Alternate names: Southern Guiyang Miao, Miao. 
Dialects: Inherently unintelligible to speakers of other Hmong varieties. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Southern Mashan

7,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Southwestern Guizhou, southern portions of Ziyun, Changshun, Luodian, Huishui, and Wangmo counties.
Alternate names: Southern Mashan Miao, Miao. 
Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Southern Qiandong

300,000
 (1987
 Zhang and Cao)
Qiandongnan Miao Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province, and southward into Guangxi Province.
Alternate names: Southern Qiandong Miao, Hmu, Miao, Black Miao, Central Miao, Southern East-Guizhou Miao. 
Dialects: Not intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Corresponds more or less to Ma's Central Miao and Purnell's Eastern Miao. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong 
More information.

Hmong, Southwestern Guiyang

50,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Suburbs of Guiyang City, Pingba, Zhenning, Kaiyang, Guiding, Qingzhen, and Anshun counties or towns, southwestern portion.
Alternate names: Southwestern Guiyang Miao, Miao. 
Dialects: Inherently unintelligible to speakers of other Hmong varieties. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Southwestern Huishui

40,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Gaopa, Huishui, Guiding, Changshun, Ziyun, and Pingba counties, Guiyang City Region, southwestern portion.
Alternate names: Southwestern Huishui Miao, Miao.
Dialects: Inherently unintelligible to speakers of other Hmong varieties. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Western Mashan

10,000
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Southwestern Guizhou, Ziyun, Changshun, Luodian, Huishui, and Wangmo counties, western portion.
Alternate names: Western Mashan Miao, Mia.
Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong, Western Xiangxi

700,000
 (1987
 Zhang and Cao) 
Western Hunan, Xiangxi Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Songtao County in Guizhou, Xiushan County in Sichuan, and some places in Guangxi. Possibly also in Ha Tuyen Province, northern Viet Nam and in Thailand.
Alternate names: Red Miao, Meo Do, Red Meo, Western Xiangsi Miao, Ghao-Xong, Huayuan Miao, Hsianghsi Miao, West Hunan Miao, Western West-Hunan Miao. 
Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong (Miao). 
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Xiangxi 
More information.

Honi

100,000
 (1990 Svantesson)
Yunnan, near the Hani. May also be in Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Woni, Ouni, Uni, Ho, Haoni. 
Dialects: Baihong. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Hao-Bai 
More information.

Horpa

38,000
 (1999
 Sun Hongkai)
15,000 monolinguals. Danba (=Rongzhag), Daofu (Dawu), Luhuo, Xinlong (Nyagrong) counties of the Ganzi (Garz) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of western Sichuan, and Jinchua (Quqn) County of the Aba (Ngawa) Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of northwestern Sichuan. Central and eastern Daofu County, Chengguan District, Wari, Xiajia, and Muru townships of Wari District, and Shazhong township of Bamei District; and central and northwestern Danba County, in Geshiza, Bianer, and Dandong townships of Dasang District, Donggu township in Chuangu District, Bawang and Jinchuan townships of Jinchuan District; of Ganzi Prefecture, an area traditionally known as the five parts of Horpa territory. Scattered communities are also in adjacent Luhuo (in Renda township of Xialatuo District, and Xinlong in Manqing, Zhuwo, and Duoshan townships of Hexi District).
Alternate names: Hor, Hrsk, Ergong, Danba, Western Jiarong, Pawang, Bawang. 
Dialects: Daofu (Daofuhua, Taofu, Western Horpa, Western Ergong), Geshiza (Geshitsa). Hongkai Sun (1999) lists 4 dialects: Western as above, Central (Danba), Eastern (Jinchuan, Lawurong), Northern (Rangtang). Huang Bufan and Sun Tianxin suggest that the eastern variety is a separate language.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, rGyarong 
More information.

Hu

1,000
 (1984 Svantesson)
Southwestern Yunnan Province, Mengla, Jinghong, 5 villages.
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
More information.

Ili Turki

120 in China (1980
 R. F. Hahn)
Ili Valley near Kuldja, Xinjiang. Probably some in Kazakhstan. Also spoken in Kazakhstan.
Alternate names: T'urk, Tuerke. 
Classification:
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
More information.

Iu Mien

383,000 in China
 (1995
 Wang and Mao)
Population total all countries: 818,685. Dayao Mountains, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong, Yunnan, Hunan, and Guizhou provinces. In Guizhou Province Mien are in Rongjiang, Congjiang, and Libo counties; in Guangdong Province, in Ruyuan County. Also spoken in Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Laos, Myanmar, New Zealand, Switzerland, Thailand, USA, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Youmian, Yiu Mien, Yao, Mien, Mian, Myen, Highland Yao, Pan Yao, Ban Yao. 
Dialects: The different dialects may not be intelligible. Biao Mon may be a dialect of Iu Mien. Differences from other Mienic languages are in the tone system, consonants, vowel quality, vowel length. Chinese linguists consider the Iu Mien spoken in Changdong, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi to be the standard. May be closest to Mandarin. Lexical similarity 78% with Kim Mun, 70% with Biao-Jiao Mien, 61% with Dzao Min. 
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
More information.

Jiamao

52,300
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Near Wuzhi Mountain in southern Hainan Province, Baoting, Lingshui, and Qiongzhong counties.
Alternate names: Kamau, Tai. 
Dialects: Very different from Hlai dialects in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Hlai 
More information.

Jiarong

83,000
 (1999
 Sun Hongkai)
25,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 151,197 including 139,000 in Situ Jiarong, 12,197 in Chabao and Sidaba (1993 Lin). North central Sichuan. Situ is in the traditional territory of four chieftaincies: Zhuokeji, Suomo, Songgang, Dangba. Chabao is in the northeastern corner of Maerkang county, at Longerjia, Dazang, and Shaerzong townships in Chabao District. Sidaba is in Caodeng, Kangshan, and Ribu townships in Sidaba District of Maerkang County. Some outlying Sidaba communities are to the north in certain villages of Kehe and Rongan townships, at the southwesten corner of the Aba County, and to the west along the middle Duke River between Wuyi and Shili townships in Rangtang County, spilling over to a small area near the confluence of the Seda and Duke rivers in Seda County.
Alternate names: Jyarung, Gyarong, Gyarung, Rgyarong, Chiarong, Jarong. 
Dialects: Chabao (Dazang, Northeastern Jiarong), Sidaba (Caodeng, Northwestern Jiarong), Situ (Eastern Jiarong). Subdialects of Situ are: Maerkang, Lixian, Jinchuan, Xiaojin; of Sidaba Caodeng and Ribu. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Lexical similarity 75% between Eastern and Northern Jiarong, 60% between Western and Northern 60%, 13% between Situ and Horpa. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, rGyarong 
More information.

Jingpho

40,000 in China.
 (1999
 Xu Xijian)
50% monolingual. Ethnic population: 119,209 in China (1990 census). Western Yunnan, Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yingjiang County (Shidan dialect; Enkun dialect elsewhere in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture).
Alternate names: Jingpo, Jinghpaw, Chingpaw, Chingp'o, Kachin, Marip, Dashanhua. 
Dialects: Enkun, Shidan, Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Hkauri, Gauri), Dzili (Jili), Dulong.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho 
More information.

Jinuo, Buyuan

1,000
 (1994)
Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 18,021 (1990 census). South Yunnan, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, 53 kilometers east of Jinghong. Youle Mountains. 40 villages. Over 3,000 square kilometers.
Alternate names: Jino, Buyuan. 
Dialects: The two 'dialects' (Buyuan and Youle) are not inherently intelligible with each other. Their speakers use Chinese for communication.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern 
More information.

Jinuo, Youle

13,000
 (2000)
Most speakers are monolingual. South Yunnan, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, 53 kilometers east of Jinghong. Youle Mountains. 40 villages. Over 3,000 square kilometers.
Alternate names: Jino, Youle. 
Dialects: The two 'dialects' (Youle and Buyuan) are not inherently intelligible with each other. Their speakers use Chinese to communicate with each other. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern 
More information.
Jurchen   Extinct. 
Alternate names:
Nuzhen, Nuchen. 
Dialects:
Related to Manchu. 
Classification: Altaic, Tungus, Southern, Southwest 
More information.

Kado

100,000 in China.
 (1990
 Svantesson)
South Yunnan.
Alternate names: Kadu, Katu, Kato, Kudo, Gado, Asak, Sak, Thet, That, Mawteik, Puteik.
Dialects: Kadu, Ganaan (Ganan), Andro, Sengmai, Chakpa, Phayeng. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Luish 
More information.

Kaduo

5,292 in China.
 (2000 WCD)
South central Yunnan Province, Hexi District of Tonghai County.
Alternate names: Gazhuo, Kado, Kadu.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Bi-Ka 
More information.

Kalmyk-Oirat

139,000 in China.
 (1989
 Wurm et al.)
Population includes 106,000 Torgut, 60,000 Kok Nur. Bayan Gool Autonomous Prefecture and Bortala Autonomous Prefecture.
Alternate names: Oirat, Weilate, Xinjiang Mongolian, Western Mongol. 
Dialects: Jakhachin, Bayit, Mingat, Olot (ld, Elyut, Eleuth), Khoshut (Khoshuud), Dorbot.
Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat 
More information.

Kang

34,065 in China.
 (1993)
Southwest Yunnan.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Kangjia

377 to 487
(1999
 Sechenchogt)
Ethnic population: 487. Shalimu, Zongzila, and Hangdao villages, Jainca County, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province.
Alternate names: Kangyang Hui. 
Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongou.
More information.

Kazakh

1,111,718 in China.
 (1990 census)
85% are monolingual. Population includes 830,000 Northeastern Kazakh, 70,000 Southwestern Kazakh (1982). North Xinjiang (Yili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture), east Xinjiang (Mulei Kazakh Autonomous County and Balikun Kazakh Autonomous County), northwest Gansu (Akesai Kazakh Autonomous County), and northwest Qinghai provinces.
Alternate names: Kazak, Kazax, Hazake.
Dialects: Northeastern Kazakh, Southwestern Kazakh. 
Classification:
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
More information.

Kemiehua

1,000
 (1991)
Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, southwestern Yunnan Province.
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified 
More information.

Khakas

10 in China.
 (1982 census)
Ethnic population: 875 in ethnic group in China (1982 census). Fuyu County, north of Qiqihar, in Heilongjiang Province.
Alternate names: Khakhas, Khakhass, Abakan Tatar, Yenisei Tatar. 
Dialects: Sagai, Beltir, Kacha, Kyzyl, Shor, Kamassian. 
Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern 
More information.

Khmu

1,600 in China.
 (1990)
Mengla and Jinghong counties of Xishuangbanna Prefecture, southwestern Yunnan.
Alternate names: Kammu, Khamu, Khmu', Khamuk, Kamhmu, Kamu, Kemu, Khomu, Mou, Lao Terng, Pouteng, Theng. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
More information.

Khuen

1,000 in China. (1993)  Alternate names: Kween, Khween, Khouen.
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
More information.

Kim Mun

200,000 in China. (1995
 Wang and Mao)
Population includes 61,000 in Hainan Province (2000 census). Population total all countries: 374,500. Yunnan Province, seventeen counties; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, thirteen counties; Hainan Province, seven counties. Also spoken in Laos, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Mun, Kem Mun, Gem Mun, Jim Mun, Jinmen, Kimmun, Men, Man Lantien, Lanten, Lan Tin, Lowland Yao, Chasan Yao, Shanzi Yao, Hainan Miao. 
Dialects: Dao Quan Trang, Dao Ho. Not intelligible with Iu Mien. Lexical similarity 78% with Iu Mien, 67% with Biao-Jiao Mien, 59% with Dzao Min.
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
More information.

Kirghiz

437,238 in China. (1999
 Hu Zhenhua)
Older adults are monolingual. West and southwest Xinjiang, in Wuqia, Akqi, Akto, Tekes, Zhaosu, Baicheng, Wushi counties.
Alternate names: Kirgiz, Kara, Ke'erkez. 
Dialects: Southern Kirghiz, Northern Kirghiz.
Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
More information.

Kon Keu

6,300
 (2000 WCD) 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
More information.

Korean

1,920,597 in China., (1990 census) 1,200,000 are monolingual. Inner Mongolia. 46% of Koreans in China live in Hyanbian Korean Autonomous District along Tumen River, Jilin (Kirin), and Heilongjiang, and Liaoning.
Alternate names:
Chaoxian. 
Classification: Language Isolate 
More information.

Kuanhua

1,000
 (1991)
Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, southwestern Yunnan Province.
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified 
More information.

Kyerung

100 in China. (2002) Tibet.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
More information.

Lachi

1,153 in China.
(1990
 Liang Min)
Population includes 193 Bag Lachi in 37 households, 852 Han Lachi in 179 households, 157 Red Lachi in 27 households, 432 Flowery Lachi in 72 households. Ethnic population: 1,634. Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture, southern Maguan County, several villages: Bag Lachi in Nanlao Township, Han Lachi in Renhe and Jiahanqing townships, Red Lachi in Xiaobazi Township, and Flowery Lachi in Jinchang.
Alternate names: La Chi, Lati, Tai Lati, Laji, Lipulio, I To, Y To, Y Poong, Y Mia, Ku Te. 
Dialects: Lipute (Bag Lachi), Liputcio (Han Lachi), Lipuke (Red Lachi), Lipuliongtco (Flowery Lachi), Liputi (Black Lachi), Lipupi (Long-Haired Lachi).
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi 
More information.

Ladakhi

12,000 in China. (1995) Western Tibet.
Alternate names: Ladaphi, Ladhakhi, Ladak, Ladwags. 
Dialects: Leh (Central Ladakhi), Shamma (Sham, Shamskat, Lower Ladakhi), Nubra Ladakhi. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi 
More information.

Lahu

411,476 in China. (1990 census) 360,000 are monolingual. Population includes 240,000 Na, probably including Kutsung and Laopang. Population total all countries: 577,178. Ethnic population: 417,000. Lancang Lahu Autonomous County, Gengma, and Menglian counties, southwestern Yunnan. Also spoken in Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Lohei, Lahuna, Laku, Kaixien, Namen, Mussuh, Muhso, Musso, Mussar, Moso.
Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu, Loheirn), Nyi (Red Lahu, Southern Lahu, Musseh Daeng, Luhishi, Luhushi), Shehleh. Na is the standard dialect. Black Lahu and Lahu Shi (Yellow Lahu, Kutsung) have difficult intelligibility. (See separate entry for Lahu Shi.) Mossu is in Laos. Lahu Shi (Yellow Lahu, Kutsung) is distinct.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
More information.

Lahu Shi

5,000 in China. (1984) Southern Yunnan.
Alternate names: Lahu Xi, Kutsung, Kucong, Kur, Shi, Yellow Lahu, Kwi. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
More information.

Lakkia

12,000
 (1999
 Liu Baoyuan)
4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000. Eastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County.
Alternate names: Lakkja, Lakja, Lakia, Lajia, Tai Laka, Laka, Chashan Yao, Tea Mountain Yao.
Dialects: Officially under the Yao (Mien) nationality, but the language is Tai-Kadai (Svantesson). Phonetically similar to Mien, word order to Bunu. Not intelligible with Hmong or Bunu. Minimal variation within Lakkia. All varieties are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. Lexical similarity 45% with Dong, 44% with Northern Zhuang, 24% with Buyang, 23% with Lati and Laqua, 22% with Gelo. 
Classification:
Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Lakkja 
More information.

Laqua

307 in China.
 (1990
 Zhang Junru)
58 households. Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Malipo County, Tiechang, Matong, Punong, Pucha, and Pufeng towns.
Alternate names: Pubiao, Pupeo, Pu Po, Ka Biao, Ka Bao, Ka Beo, Kabeo, Qabiao. 
Classification:
Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
More information.

Lashi

1,800
 (1997)
Luxi, Longchuan, Yingjiang, and Ruili counties, Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, western Yunnan.
Alternate names: Lasi, Leqi, Letsi, Lachikwaw, Chashanhua, Acye. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
More information.

Lawa, Western

75,000 in China Population includes 30,000 in the Blang nationality, 45,000 in the Va nationality (1990 Svantesson). Population total all countries: 82,000. Southwest Yunnan Province. Also spoken in Thailand.
Alternate names: Wa, Wa Proper, Lava, Luwa, Lua, L'wa, Lavua, Lava, Mountain Lawa. 
Dialects: Unintelligible to speakers of Eastern Lawa in Thailand. Some dialects are unintelligible to each other's speakers. Related to Wa and Parauk in Myanmar and China. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Lawa 
More information.

Lhomi

1,000 in Tibet Tibet.
Alternate names: Lhoket, Shing Saapa.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
More information.

Lingao

600,000 (2000 Liang Min). 100,000 monolinguals. Population includes 350,000 Lincheng, 170,000 Qiongshan. North central coast of Hainan, entire Lingao county, parts of Danxian, Chengmai, and Qiongshan counties, and suburbs of Haikou city.
Alternate names: Vo Limkou, Limkow, Linkow, Ongbe, Ong-Be, B. 
Dialects: Lincheng (Lingao Proper-Dengmai), Qiongshan. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Be 
More information.

Lipo

60,068
 (1993)
Around Taku, east Yunnan, highland areas. Alternate names: Eastern Lisu, Taku Lisu, He Lisu, Black Lisu, Taku. 
Dialects: Not intelligible with Lisu. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Lisu 
More information.

Lisu

580,000 in China. (1999
 Mu Yuzhang)
467,869 are monolingual. Population total all countries: 723,000. West Yunnan Province, 11 prefectures, 63 counties, upper reaches of the Salween and Mekong rivers, and Sichuan Province, Xichang Prefecture. Also spoken in India, Myanmar, Thailand.
Alternate names: Lissu, Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Li-Hsaw, Lu-Tzu, Lesuo, Li, Lishu, Liso, Leisu, Leshuoopa, Loisu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw-Yen, Yaw Yin, Yeh-Jen, Chung, Cheli, Chedi, Lip'a, Lusu, Khae.
Dialects: Hua Lisu (Flowery Lisu), Pai Lisu (White Lisu), Lu Shi Lisu. Dialect differences are not great. Dialect variation across country borders.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Lisu 
More information.

L

250,000 in China. (1990
 Svantesson)
50% monolingual. Population total all countries: 672,064. South Yunnan, Jinghong (Chiang Hung, Chien Rung), Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, west of the Lixianjiang (Black) River. Also spoken in Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Tai Lu, Lue, Ly, Lu, Dai, Dai Le, Xishuangbanna Dai, Sipsongpanna Dai, Pai-I, Pai'i', Shui-Pai-I. 
Dialects: Mu'ang Yong and dialects in the Lanna area may converge phonologically with Lanna (Diller 1990). Low intelligibility of Shan (Dehong). Different from Tai Na, each having their own traditions. Most closely related to Khun. Lexical similarity 88% with Northern Thai, 74% with Central Thai. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
More information.

Luoba, Boga'er

1,088 in China. (1999
 Ouyang Jueya)
400 monolinguals. Lhunze and Mainling counties in southeast Tibet, south of the Yaluzangjiang River in the Luoyu area.
Alternate names: Lhoba, Lho-Pa, Boga'er, Bengni-Boga'er, Bokar, Adi-Bokar, Adi, Abor.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
More information.

Luoba, Yidu

80 in China.
 (1999
 Sun Hongkai)
50 are monolingual. Townships of Xia Chayu (Zayu) and Ba'antong of the Xia Chayu (Zayu) Zone, Chayu County of Nyingchi Prefecture, in southeast Tibet, in the Danba River valley and adjoining mountain slopes, near the Bhutan border.
Alternate names: Lhoba, Lho-Pa, Yidu, Idu Mishmi, Idu Lhoba, Chulikata. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
More information.

Macanese

4,000
 (1977
 Voegelin and Voegelin)
Ethnic population: 8,500 (1985). Hong Kong. Possibly in USA.
Alternate names: Macao Creole Portuguese, Macaense. 
Classification: Creole, Portuguese based 
More information.

Mak

10,000
 (1982 census)
Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Yangfeng, Fangcun, Jialiang, and Di'e villages in northwestern Libo County in Guizhou Province, and some in neighboring Dushan County, Guizhou.
Alternate names: Mo, Mohua, Mo-Hua, Ching, Mojiahua, Mochiahua. 
Dialects: Mak, Chi, Ching (Cham), Hwa, Lyo. Dialect differences are minor. Similar to Ai-Cham.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Man Met

10,000
 (1982 census)
900 (1984 Svantesson). Southwestern Yunnan Province, 5 communities in Xishuangbanna near the Hu.
Alternate names: Manmit, Manmi. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
More information.

Manchu

60
 (1999
 Zhao Aping)
Ethnic population: 1,821,180 (1990 census). Heilongjiang, a few Manchu-speaking villages in Aihui and Fuyu counties. The ethnic group is in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces. There may also be members of the ethnic group in North Korea and Siberia.
Alternate names: Man. 
Dialects: Bala, Alechuxa, Jing, Lalin. 
Classification: Altaic, Tungus, Southern, Southwes.
More information.

Mang

500 in China. Yunnan, Jinping County, Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture.
Alternate names: Mang U, Xamang, Chaman, Manbu, Ba'e. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang 
More information.

Maonan

20,000
 (2000
 Liang Min)
A few thousand women and children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 71,968 (1990 census). Xianan area of Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County in north central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. A few in nearby Hechi, Yishan, Nandan, and Du'an counties.
Alternate names: Ai Nan. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Maru

3,500 in China. (1997) Over 10,000 households (1999). Western Yunnan, Luxi, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Ruili, and Lianghe counties of the Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture.
Alternative Names:
Matu, Malu, Lawng, Laungwaw, Laungaw, Langsu, Lang'e, Nyky, Diso, Zi, Lhao Vo.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
More information.

Moinba

36,000 in China. (1999
 Shaozun Lu)
20,000 are monolingual. To the east of Bhutan, partly in southeastern Tibet, mainly on the Yarlung-Zanbo River, Medog, Nyinchi, Cuona counties. There may be speakers in Bhutan.
Alternate names: Menba, Cuona Menba, Cuona Monpa, Cona Monba, Menpa, Monpa, Monba, Mompa, Momba. 
Dialects: Northern Cuona, Southern Cuona.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
More information.

Mongolian, Peripheral

3,381,000 in China. (1982) 2,500,000 are monolingual. Population includes 4,806,849 Buriat and Tuvin (1990 census). 299,000 Chakhar, 317,000 Bairin, 1,347,000 Khorain, 593,00 Karachin, 123,000 Ordos, 34,000 Ejine (1982 census). Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, Urumchi to Hailar. Also spoken in Mongolia.
Alternate names: Mongol, Monggol, Menggu, Southern-Eastern Mongolian, Inner Mongolian.
Dialects: Chahar (Chaha'er, Chakhar, Qahar), Ordos (E'erduosite), Tumut (Tumet), Shilingol (Ujumchin), Ulanchab (Urat, Mingan), Jo-Uda (Bairin, Balin, Naiman, Keshikten), Jostu (Ke'erqin, Kharchin, Kharachin, Kharchin-Tumut, Eastern Tumut), Jirim (Kalaqin, Khorchin, Jalait, Gorlos), Ejine. Largely intelligible with Halh standard dialect of Mongolia, but there are phonological and important loan differences. 
Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper 
More information.

Mulam

50,000 to 60,000 (2000 Liang Min) 10,000 monolinguals (including women and preschool children). Ethnic population: 159,328 (1990 census). Luocheng Mulam Autonomous County (90% in Dongmen and Siba communes), and adjacent counties in north central Guizhou Province; and in Majiang and Kaili City in Guizhou Province.
Alternate names: Mulao, Molao, Mulou, Muliao, Mulao Miao, Abo, Ayo. 
Dialects: Close to Dong. Lexical similarity 65% with Dong (probably Southern Dong), 53% with Zhuang (probably Northern Zhuang). 
Classification:
Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Muya

13,000
 (2000
 Sun Hongkai).
About 2,000 are monolingual. West central Sichuan, Kangbo (Kangding) and Jiulong (Gyaisi) in the Ganzi (Garz) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and Simian (Shimian) County in the Ya'an District.
Alternate names: Miyao, Minyak, Manyak.
Dialects: Eastern Muya, Western Muya. The 'dialects' listed are reported to not be inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Namuyi

4,000
 (2000
 Sun Hongkai)
200 monolingual speakers, mainly older adults. Mianning, Muli, Xichang, and Yanyuan counties of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, and Jiulong (Gyaisi) County in the Ganzi (Garz) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of southwestern Sichuan.
Alternate names: Namuzi. 
Dialects: Eastern Namuyi, Western Namuyi. Some intelligibility between the dialects, with lexical and phonological differences. Their speakers use Chinese when communicating with speakers of the other dialect. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Nanai

12 in China.
 (1999 Chaoke)
Ethnic population: 4,245 in China (1990 census). Sanjiang plain in the northeastern corner of Heilongjiang Province, near where the Heilong, Songhua, and Wusuli rivers merge, with most in Tongjiang county, Bacha and Jiejinkou villages, and in Sipai village in Raohe County.
Alternate names: Goldi, Gold, Sushen, Juchen.
Dialects: Hezhen (Hezhe, Heche), Qileng (Qile'en, Kili, Kilen, Kirin). 
Classification:
Altaic, Tungus, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj 
More information.

Naxi

308,839
 (2000 census)
100,000 monolinguals. Most (200,000) in Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County, northwestern Yunnan. Some scattered through Weixi, Zhongdian, Ninglang, Deqing, Yongsheng, Heqing, Jianchuan, and Lanping counties. Some in Yanyuan, Yanbian, and Muli counties of Sichuan Province. A few in Mangkang county, southeastern Tibet. Possibly also in Myanmar.
Alternate names: Nahsi, Nasi, Nakhi, Lomi, Mu, "Moso", "Mosso", "Mo-Su". 
Dialects: Lichiang (Lijiang), Lapao, Lutien. The western dialect is reported to be fairly uniform and is considered to be the standard (from Dayan town in Lijiang County). Eastern has some internal differences, and intelligibility may be low within it.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Naxi 
More information.

Nung

390 in China.
 (1999
 Sun Hongkai)
Almost no monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500 in China (1999 Sun Hongkai). Middle reaches of Nu (Salween) River, Yunnan. Along the border region of Fugong County in the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan, 7 hamlets: Mugujia, Hashi, Muleng, Lagagong, Ani, Qia, Lahaigong in Mugujia village, administrative region of Shangpa Township.
Alternate names: Anung, Anong, Anoong, Anu, Nu, Lu, Lutzu, Lutze, Kiutze, Khanung, Kwinp'ang, Khupang, Kwingsang, Fuch'ye. 
Dialects: Cholo, Gwaza, Miko. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish 
More information.

Nusu

7,500
 (1999
 Sun Hongkai)
1,000 monolinguals (mainly older adults). Population includes 2,000 in Northern Nusu, 3,000 in Southern Nusu, and 4,000 in Central Nusu. Lushui and Fugong counties in Nujiang Lusu Autonomous Prefecture of northwestern Yunnan.
Dialects: Northern Nusu (Wawa-Kongtong), Southern Nusu (Guoke-Puluo), Central Nusu (Zhizhiluo-Laomudeng). May be Nungish or a variety of Yi (Matisoff et al. 1996:74). The 3 'dialects' listed above are not inherently intelligible to one another's speakers.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Unclassified 
More information.

Oroqen

1,200
 (2002
 Whaley)
800 are monolingual. Ethnic population: 7,004 (2000 D. Bradley). Huma, Aihui, Sunko districts, Great Xingan Ridge, Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. Possibly eastern Siberia.
Alternate names: Orochon, Oronchon, Olunchun, Elunchun, Ulunchun. 
Dialects: Gankui, Heilongjiang Oroqen. Gankui in Inner Mongolia is the standard dialect.
Classification: Altaic, Tungus, Northern, Evenki 
More information.

Pa Di

1,000 in China. Population total all countries: 1,300. Also spoken in Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Padi. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
More information.

Pa-Hng

26,815 in China. (1995
 McConnell)
10,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 32,384. Ethnic population: 26,815 in China. Guizhou Province (Liping and Congjiang counties), northeastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Rongshui, Sanjiang, Longsheng, Rong'an, and Lingui counties). Also spoken in Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Pa Hng, Pa Ngng, Paheng, Baheng, Bahengmai, Pa Then, Tng, Meo Lai, Man Pa Seng.
Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Pa-hng 
More information.

Palaung, Pale

5,000 in China. (1995)  Western Yunnan, Luxi County, just east of Rumai.
Alternate names: Dlang, Ngwe Palaung, Silver Palaung, Pale, Palay, Bulai, Bulei, Pulei, Southern Ta'ang. 
Dialects: Bulei, Raojin. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung 
More information.

Palaung, Rumai

2,000 in China. (1995) Far western Yunnan, Longchuan, and Ruili counties.
Alternate names: Rumai, Ruomai, Humai.
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung 
More information.

Palaung, Shwe

2,000 in China. (1995 SIL) Total De'ang in China 15,462 (1990 census). Yunnan.
Alternate names: Ta-Ang Palaung, Golden Palaung, Shwe. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung 
More information.

Panang

12,000
 (2002)
Tibet.
Alternate names: Panags, Panakha, Pananag, Banag, Banang, Sbanag, Sbranag. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
More information.

Parauk

180,000 in China. (1990 census) Awa Mountains, southwest Yunnan as far east as the Lancang (Mekong) River.
Alternate names: Wa, Praok, Baraog, Baroke.
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Wa 
More information.

Pela

400
 (2000
 D. Bradley)
Ethnic population: 1,000 (2001 J. Edmondson). Yunnan Province, Dehong Prefecture, Luxi County, Santaishan Township, and Yingjiang and Lianghe counties. May also be in Myanmar.
Alternate names: Bela, Bola, Pala, Polo. 
Dialects: Close to Zaiwa. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
More information.

Phula

4,200 in China. (2002)  Alternate names: Ph L, Phu Khla, Fu Khla, Ph L Hn. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Unclassified 
More information.

Pumi, Northern

35,000
 (1999)
Perhaps 1|3 are monolingual. 24,000 in the Pumi nationality, 30,000 in the Tibetan nationality (1994). Southwestern Sichuan, Muli, Yanyuan, and Kiulong counties; and northwestern Yunnan, Yongning District of Ninglang County.
Alternate names: P'umi, Pimi, Primmi, Pruumi, P'mi, P'rome, Ch'rame. 
Dialects: Taoba. Northern Pumi has 5 subdialects. Intelligibility of Southern Pumi is difficult. Lexical similarity between Northern and Southern is 60%, grammatical differences minor. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Pumi, Southern

19,000
 (1999)
About 1|3 are monolingual. 24,000 in the Pumi nationality, 30,000 in the Tibetan nationality (1994). Northwestern Yunnan Province, Lanping, Weixi, Yongsheng, and Lijiang counties, and Xinyingpan District of Ninglang County.
Alternate names: P'umi, Pimi, Primmi, Pruumi, P'mi, P'rome. 
Dialects: Qinghua. Southern Pumi has 5 subdialects. Intelligibility of Northern Pumi is difficult. Lexical similarity 60% between Northern and Southern.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Qiang, Northern

57,800
 (1999)
130,000 in all Qiang languages, including 80,000 in the Qiang nationality and 50,000 in the Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O Svantesson). 198,252 ethnic population in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). North central Sichuan Province, Mao, Songpan, Heishui, and Beichuan counties.
Alternate names: Ch'iang. 
Dialects: Yadu, Weigu, Cimulin, Luhua.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Qiang, Southern

81,300
 (1999
 Jonathan Evans)
No monolinguals. North central Sichuan Province, along the Minjiang River basin between Zhenjiangguan in Songpan County to the north and Wenchuan and Li counties to the south, as far east as Beichuan County.
Alternate names: Ch'iang. 
Dialects: Dajishan (Daqishan), Taoping, Longxi, Mianchi, Heihu, Sanlong, Jiaochang. Related to Manyak, Menia, Muli. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Queyu

7,000
 (1995)
Xinlong (Nyagrong), Yajiang (Nyagquka) and Litang counties in the Ganzi (Garz) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of western Sichuan.
Alternate names: Zhaba. 
Dialects: Close to Zhaba. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Riang

3,000 in China. (1995) Western Yunnan, vicinities of Zhenkang and Baoshan.
Alternate names: Riang-Lang, Liang, Yang Sek, Yang Wan Kun, Yin, Yanglam. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Riang 
More information.

Russian

13,504 in China. (1990 census) North Xinjiang, including Urumqi, and Heilongjiang.
Alternate names: Olossu, Eluosi, Russ, Russki.
Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East 
More information.

Salar

60,000
 (2002)
Under 20,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 113,000. Xunhua Salar Autonomous County and Hualong Hui Autonomous County in Qinghai Province, Jishishan Autonomous County in Gansu Province, and Yining in Xinjiang.
Alternate names: Sala. 
Dialects: Jiezi, Mengda. Reinhard F. Hahn says Salar is spoken by descendants of an Oghuz-Turkic-speaking subtribe that, in the 15th century area of Samarkand, split off a main tribe and 'returned eastward', eventually settling in Western China. Their language has an Oghuz Turkic base, has taken on a medieval Chaghatay Turkic stratum through Central Asian contacts and finally acquired a stratum of features from local languages. Jiezi is often taken as the standard dialect. 
Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern 
More information.

Samei

10,000
 (2000
 D. Bradley)
Ethnic population: 28,200. Yunnan, Dabanqiao District, 13 villages.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern 
More information.

Samtao

100 in China.
 (1993)
Southwest Yunnan, Xishuangbanna Prefecture.
Alternate names: Samtau, Samtuan. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
More information.

Sarikoli

16,000
 (2000
 Gao Erqing)
Monolinguals include preschool children, and those who have not been to school. Ethnic population: 20,412 (2000 Gao Erqing). Southwest Xinjiang, in and around Taxkorgan (Tashkurghan), Sarikol Valley.
Alternate names: Sarykoly, Salikur, Tajik, Tadzik, Tajiki. 
Dialects: Not intelligible with Shughni of Russia and Afghanistan. 
Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami 
More information.

Shangzhai

4,100
 (2004)
North central Sichuan, near the confluence of the Duke River and its tributary Zhongke River in Shili, Zongke, and Puxi townships, Shangzhai District, southern Rangthang County.
Alternate names: Western Jiarong. 
Dialects: Dayili, Zongke, Puxi. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Lexical similarity 75% between Eastern and Northern Jiarong, 60% between Western and Northern. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, rGyarong 
More information.

She

911
 (1999
 Mao Zongwu)
197 monolinguals. Population includes 579 Luofu, 386 Lianhua (1995 McConnell). Ethnic population: 630,378 (1990 census) in the official nationality, including 270,000 in Fujian and a smaller group in Guangdong. Southeastern Guangdong Province, (Lianhua dialect in Haifeng and Huidong counties; Luofu dialect in Boluo and Zengcheng counties), more than 10 villages. Alternate names: Huo Nte, Ho Nte.  Dialects: Luofu (Eastern She), Lianhua (Western She). Major linguistic differences with Mien. Closest to Jiongnai Bunu. Dialects are inherently intelligible. Classification within Hmong-Mien is in dispute (McConnell 1995:1320).
Classification:
Hmong-Mien, Ho Nte 
More information.

Sherpa

800 in China. (1994) Tibet.
Alternate names: Sharpa, Sharpa Bhotia, Xiaerba, Serwa. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
More information.

Shixing

1,800
 (2000
 D. Bradley)
1,200 are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Muli Tibetan Autonomous County in the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of southwestern Sichuan.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Sui

200,000 in China. (1999
 Zeng Xiaoyu)
100,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 200,120. Ethnic population: 200,000 or more (1999 Zeng Xiaoyu). Districts of Sandu and Libo in Guizhou and District of Nandan in Guangxi, dispersed in Guangxi and northeastern Yunnan. Also spoken in Viet Nam.
Alternate names: Shui, Ai Sui, Sui Li, Suipo.
Dialects: Sandong (San Tung), Anyang (Yang'an), Pandong. Dialect differences are minor. That spoken in Yunnan is reported to be more different. Sandong is the standard. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Tai Hongjin

150,000
 (1995
 Luo Meizhen)
Scattered communities in Honghe, Jinshajiang, Yuanyang, Yuanjiang, Xinping, Maguan, Wuting, and Sichuan north of the Yangtze at Huili and Takou.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Unclassified 
More information.

Tai Na

250,000 in China. (1990
 Svantesson)
Population total all countries: 357,400. Ethnic population: 1,025,128 in the official nationality (1990 census). Dehong Prefecture, southwest of Dali near the Lancang (Mekong) River in south central Yunnan. Also possibly in northern Viet Nam. Also spoken in France, Laos, Myanmar, Switzerland, Thailand.
Alternate names: Dai Nuea, Tai Neua, Tai Nue, Tai N, Dai Na, Dehong Dai, Dehong, Tai Dehong, Tai Le, Tai-Le, Dai Kong, Tai-Kong, Tai Mao, Chinese Shan, Chinese Tai, Yunannese Shan, Yunnan Shant'ou. 
Dialects: Dehong, Tai Pong (La, You, Ya, Ka, Tai Ka, Sai), Yongren. Lexical similarity 65% with Northern Zhuang, 29% with Laqua, 27% with Buyang and Lati, 22% with Gelo. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
More information.

Tai Ya

34,000
 (1982)
Central Yunnan Province, Xinping Yi-Dai Autonomous County, Mosha District.
Alternate names: Tai-Cung, Tai-Chung, Tai Cung, Cung, Daiya, Ya. 
Dialects: Probably not intelligible with other varieties of Dai. Close to Tai Na. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
More information.

Takpa

Unknown Alternate names: Dwags, Dakpa. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi 
More information.

Tatar

800 in China. (1999
 Chen Zongzhen)
No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,873 in the official nationality in China (1990 census). North Xinjiang, mainly in Yining (Ghulja, Kulja), Qvqek, and mqi.
Alternate names: Tartar, Tata'er. 
Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian 
More information.

T'en

15,000
 (1999
 Bo Wenze)
No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Guizhou Province, east part of Pingtang county; some villages in Dushan county; a few villages in Huishui, just south of Guiyang.
Alternate names: Then, Yanghuang, Rau. 
Dialects: Hedong, Hexi, Huishui. Close to Sui.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Thangmi

300 in China. (2002) Tibet.
Alternate names: Thami, Dolakha. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Eastern 
More information.

Tibetan, Amdo

809,500
 (1987
 Wurm et al.)
Population includes 538,500 Hbrogpa, 97,600 Rongba, 112,800 Rongmahbrogpa, 60,600 Rtahu. Huangnan, Hainan, Haibei, and Guoluo (Golog) Tibetan Autonomous prefectures and the Haixi Mongolian-Tibetan-Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province; in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Tianzhu Autonomous County of southwestern Gansu Province, and in parts of the Ganzi and Aba (Ngawa) Tibetan Autonomous prefectures of western and northern Sichuan Province.
Alternate names: Amdo, Anduo, Ngambo. 
Dialects: Hbrogpa, Rongba, Rongmahbrogpa, Rtahu. Speakers do not find Central Tibetan or Kham varieties intelligible. Those listed as dialects may not be intelligible with each other. Lexical similarity 70% with Central Tibetan and Kham. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Northern 
More information.

Tibetan, Central

1,066,200 in China. (1990 census) About 86% are monolingual. Population includes 570,000 Dbus, 460,000 Gtsang, 40,000 Mngahris out of 4,593,000 in the official nationality. Population total all countries: 1,261,587. Tibet, Sichuan, Qinghai. Also spoken in Bhutan, India, Nepal, Norway, Switzerland, Taiwan, USA.
Alternate names: Wei, Weizang, Bhotia, Zang, Phoke, Dbus, Dbusgtsang, U, Tibetan. 
Dialects:
Gtsang (Tsang, Lhasa), Dbus, Mngahris (Ngari). In the exile community a so-called diaspora Tibetan has developed. This is based on Central Tibetan. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
More information.

Tibetan, Khams

1,487,000
 (1994)
Population includes 996,000 Eastern, 135,000 Southern, 158,000 Western, 91,000 Northern, 77,000 Jone, 30,000 Hbrugchu. Northeastern Tibet, Changdu (Qamdo) and Naqu (Nagqu) districts; Ganzi (Garz) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in western Sichuan; Diqing (Dqn) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in northwestern Yunnan Province; and Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in southwestern Qinghai Province.
Alternate names: Khams, Khams-Yal, Khams Bhotia, Kam, Khamba, Khampa, Kang. 
Dialects: Eastern Khams, Southern Khams, Western Khams, Northern Khams, Hbrugchu, Jone. Dialects listed may be separate languages; differences are reported to be large. Lexical similarity 80% with Dbusgtsang (Central Tibetan). 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Northern 
More information.

Tinani

450 to 1,600 in China.
 (1977
 Voegelin and Voegelin)
Western Tibet border.
Alternate names: Lahuli Tinan, Bhotia of Lahul, Lahauli, Lahouli, Rangloi, Gondla. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
More information.

Tsat

3,800
 (1999
 Zheng Yiqing)
Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Southern Hainan, villages of Huixin and Huihui in the Yanglan suburban district of Sanya City.
Alternate names: Utsat, Utset, Huihui, Hui, Hainan Cham. 
Dialects: Closest to Northern Roglai, but very different. Tsat is structurally changed to be like Chinese. 
Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, North 
More information.

Tseku

12,600 in China. (2000 WCD) Population total all countries: 23,641. Tibet. Possibly only in Tibet. Also spoken in Bhutan, Nepal.
Alternate names: Tsuku, Tzuku. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
More information.

Tshangla

5,000 in China. (1997) Southeastern Tibet, Motuo (Medoz, Medog) and Linzhi (Ngingchi) counties, including Padma-bkot (Pemak), just north of (and possibly on both sides of) the McMahon line, and clustered near the Tshangpo (Siang) River.
Alternate names: Sangla, Tsangla, Tsanglo, Cangluo Menba, Canglo Monba, Motuo Menba, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Central Monpa. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Bodish, Tshangla 
More information.

Tu

152,000
 (1999
 Li Keyu)
Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 190,000. East Qinghai Province, Huzhu Tu Autonomous County; Gansu Province.
Alternate names: Mongour, Monguor, Mongor.
Dialects: Huzhu (Mongghul, Halchighol, Naringhol), Minhe (Mangghuer). Said to be the most divergent of all the Mongolian languages. Intelligibility is reported to be low between dialects. Dongren speech of Huzhu is considered to be the standard.
Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongour.
More information.

Tujia, Northern

70,000
 (2002
 Brassett)
100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,353,300. Northwest Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou in Yingjiang and Yanhe counties, Wuling Mt. range.
Alternate names: Tuchia, Tudja. 
Dialects: Longshan, Baojing. There are also phonological and grammatical differences with Southern Tujia. Not intelligible to each other's speakers. Lexical similarity 40% with Southern Tujia. 
Classification:
Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tujia 
More information.

Tujia, Southern

1,500
 (2002
 Brassett)
Monolingual speakers are mainly women, children, and older adults. Ethnic population:  7,353,300. Northwest Hunan Province, Luxi county, 3 villages.
Alternate names: Tuchia. 
Dialects: There are phonological and grammatical differences with Northern Tujia. Lexical similarity 40% with Northern Tujia. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tujia 
More information.

Tuvin

2,400 in China. (1999
 Wu Hongwei)
No monolinguals. Burjin, Habahe, Fuyun, and Altay counties of Altay Prefecture, Yinjiang Autonomous Region.
Alternate names: Diba, Kk, Mungak, Tuwa.
Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern 
More information.

U

3,000
 (1990
 Svantesson)
Southwestern Yunnan Province.
Alternate names: Puman, P'uman. 
Dialects: Not closely related to Blang (Svantesson).
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
More information.

Uyghur

7,214,431 in China. (1990 census) Most are monolingual. Population includes 4,700,000 Central Uyghur, 1,150,000 Hotan, 25,000 Lop. Population total all countries: 7,601,431. Throughout the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Australia, Germany, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Turkey (Asia), USA, Uzbekistan.
Alternate names: Uighur, Uygur, Uigur, Uighuir, Uiguir, Weiwuer, Wiga. 
Dialects: Central Uyghur, Hotan (Hetian), Lop (Luobu). The Akto Trkmen speak a dialect of Uyghur with 500 different seldom-used words. There are 2,000 in two villages, Ksarap and Oytak in Akto County, south of Kashgar, Xinjiang. Dolan is a dialect spoken around the fringes of the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang. Chinese linguists recognize 3 dialects. Others have used the following dialect names: Kashgar-Yarkand (Kashi-Shac he), Yengi Hissar (Yengisar), Khotan-Kerya (Hotan-Yutian), Charchan (Qarqan, Qiemo), Aksu (Aqsu), Qarashahr (Karaxahar), Kucha (Kuqa), Turfan (Turpan), Kumul (Hami), Ili (Kulja, Yining, Taranchi), Urumqi (Urumchi), Lopnor (Lopnur), Dolan, Akto Trkmen. There are significant dialect differences between China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. 
Classification:
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
More information.

Uzbek, Northern

5,000 in China. (2000 Aixinjueluo Chentgshiliang). North and west Xinjiang; Urumqi, Kashgar, and Yining (Ghulja) cities, especially Ili.
Alternate names: Ozbek, Ouzbek, Usbeki, Usbaki.
Dialects: Andizhan, Tashkent, Samarkand, Fergana.
Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
More information.

Vietnamese

7,200 in China. (1999
 Ouyag Jueya)
14,000 monolinguals (half older adults and half children). On the Shanxin, Wanwei, and Wutou peninsulas in the Jiangping Region of the Fangcheng Pan-Nationality Autonomous County on the south coast of Guangxi Province.
Alternate names: Jing, Gin, Kinh, Ching, Annamese.
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese 
More information.

Wa

280,000 in China. (1999
 Chen Guoqing)
Many are monolingual. Awa Mountains, southwest Yunnan as far east as the Lancang (Mekong) River.
Alternate names: Va, Awa, K'awa, Kawa, Vo, Wa Pwi, Wakut. 
Dialects: Baraoke, Va, Ava. 
Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Wa 
More information.

Wakhi

6,000 in China. Ethnic population: 15,000 in China (A. E. Kibrik). Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County (especially Daftar), and in the mountains south of Pishan, Xinjiang.
Alternate names: Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi, Khik.
Dialects: Eastern Wakhi. 
Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir 
More information.

Waxianghua

300,000
 (1995)
A 6,000 square km area in western Hunan Province, Wuling Mountains, including Yuanling, Chunxi, Jishou, Guzhang, and Dayong.
Alternate names: Xianghua, Wogang. 
Dialects: Part of the Han nationality. It differs greatly from both Southwestern Mandarin (Xinan Guanhua) and Xiang Chinese (Hunanese), but is relatively uniform within itself. Neighboring Han Chinese, Miao, and Tujia people do not understand it. Some view it as a special variety of Chinese, others as a minority language, perhaps related to Miao. 
Classification:
Unclassified 
More information.

Wutunhua

2,000
 (1995)
Eastern Qinghai Province, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Tongren County, Longwu township, Upper and Lower Wutun villages and Jiangchama village.
Alternate names: Wutun. 
Classification: Mixed Language, Chinese-Tibetan-Mongolian 
More information.

Xiandao

100
 (1994)
Xiandao and Meng'e villages, Manmian Township, Jiemao District, Yingjiang County in the Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in extreme western Yunnan.
Alternate names: Xiandaohua. 
Dialects: Spoken by members of the Achang nationality, and some consider it to be a dialect of Achang. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Unclassified 
More information.

Xibe

30,000
 (2000
 An Jun)
Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 33,082 in Xinjiang Province, 172,847 in the nationality (1990 census). 50,000 ethnic Xibe in northeast China speak Chinese as first language. Mainly in Ili Region of Xinjiang Province, and some in rmqi City and Tacheng Region of Xinjiang Province.
Alternate names: Sibo, Xibo, Sibe, Sibin. 
Dialects: Colloquial Manchu. Reported to be inherently intelligible with Manchu. 
Classification:
Altaic, Tungus, Southern, Southwest.
More information.

Yerong

378
 (2000 WCD)
Western Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Napo County, Longhe Township and Pohe Township, just northeast of where Yunnan, Guangxi, and Viet Nam meet.
Alternate names: Daban Yao. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Bu-Rong 
More information.

Yi, Ache

35,000
 (2003)
Yunnan, in Shuangbo, Yimen, Eshan, and Lufeng counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish 
More information.

Yi, Awu

20,000
 (2002)
Southeastern Yunnan in Mile County and Qujing Prefecture.
Alternate names: Luowu, Luwu. 
Dialects: Northern Awu Yi, Southern Awu Yi.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Southeastern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Axi

60,000
 (2002)
Southeastern Yunnan in Mile, Luxi and Shilin counties.
Alternate names: Axibo, Axipo, Ahi. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Southeastern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Azhe

40,000
 (2002)
Southeastern Yunnan in Mile County.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Southeastern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Central

380,000
 (1991
 Encyclopedic Dictionary of Chinese Linguistics)
Central Yunnan, including Nanhua, Xiangyun, Yao'an, Jingdong, Chuxiong, Shuangbo, Mouding, Yanxing, Weishan, and Lufeng counties.
Alternate names: Lolopho. 
Dialects: Nanhua Lolopho, Shuangbo Lolopho, Yao'an Lolopho. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Central Yi 
More information.

Yi, Dayao

170,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Dayao, Yongren, Yao'an, Mouding, and Jingdong counties.
Alternate names: Dayao Lipo. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Central Yi 
More information.

Yi, Eastern Lalu

38,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Xinping, Zhenyuan, Mojiang, and Yuanjiang counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Western Yi 
More information.

Yi, Eshan-Xinping

300,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Eshan, Xinping, Yimen, Yuxi, Jiangchuan, Shuangbo, Puning, Dengjiang, and Yuanjiang counties.
Alternate names: E-Xin Yi. 
Dialects: Eshan Nasu, Xinping Nisu. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Southern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Guizhou

905,000
 (2002
 Chenmin)
Guizhou Province, Weining Yi-Hui-Miao Autonomous County, Dafang Autonomous County, Hezhang County, Pan County; some in the Baise District of western Guangxi.
Alternate names: Eastern Yi, Southeastern Yi.
Dialects: Qian Xi, Bijie, Dafang. Distinct from other Yi. Intelligibility between dialects is reported to be low. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi 
More information.

Yi, Limi

29,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Yongde, Fengqing, and Yunxian counties.
Alternate names: Liumi. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish 
More information.

Yi, Mili

23,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Jingdong, Yunxian, Zhenyuan, and Xinping counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish 
More information.

Yi, Miqie

13,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Wuding, Fumin, Lufeng, Luquan, Yimen, and Anning counties.
Alternate names: Micha, Minqi. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Central Yi 
More information.

Yi, Muji

52,000 Southeastern Yunnan, in Gejiu, Mengzi, Pingbian, Hekou, and Jinping counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish 
More information.

Yi, Naluo

40,000 Yunnan, in Qiaojia, Wuding, Luquan, Yuanmou, and Huize counties.
Alternate names: Qiaojia-Wuding Yi, Qiao-Wu Yi.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Eastern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Poluo

230,000
 (2002)
Southeastern Yunnan, in Yanshan, Wenshan, Qiubei, Maguan, Pingbian, Guangnan, Xichou, and Hekou counties.
Alternate names: Pola. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish 
More information.

Yi, Pula

20,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Honghe, Yuanyang, Yuanjiang, Gejiu, Shiping, and Jianshui counties.
Alternate names: Pula. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish 
More information.

Yi, Puwa

29,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Mengzi, Yanshan, and Kaiyuan counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish 
More information.

Yi, Sani

90,000
 (1991 EDCL)
Southeastern Yunnan in Shilin, Yilang, Mile, Luxi, and Qiubei Counties.
Dialects: Northern Sani, Southern Sani.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Southeastern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Sichuan

1,600,000
 (1991 EDCL)
Mainly in Greater and Lesser Liangshan Mountains, southern Sichuan, northwestern Yunnan. Spoken in over 40 counties.
Alternate names: Liangshan Yi, Liangshan Nosu, Northern Yi. 
Dialects: Yishengzha Yi, Yinuo Yi, Butuo Yi, Huili Yi. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi 
More information.

Yi, Southeastern Lolo

36,000
 (2002)
Southeastern Yunnan, in Maguan, Funing, Xichou, Malipo, and Honghe counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi 
More information.

Yi, Southern

470,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Shiping, Jianshui, Tonghai, Gejiu, Kaiyuan, Mengzi, Pingbian, and Hekou counties.
Alternate names: Nisu, Shiping-Jianshui Nisu, Shiping-Jianshui Yi. 
Dialects: Degree of similarity with Eshan-Xinping Yi and Yuanjiang-Mojiang Yi may warrant investigation. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi 
More information.

Yi, Southern Lolopho

190,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Jingdong, Jinggu, Lancang, Zhenyuan, Simao, and Pu'er counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Central Yi 
More information.

Yi, Western

300,000
 (1991 EDCL)
Western Yunnan, in Weishan, Fengqing, Midu, Changning, Lincang, Yunxian, Jingdong, Jinggu, Yongde, Shidian, Nanjian, Yangbi, Zhenkang, Yunlong, Zhenyuan, Binchuan, Eryuan, and Heqing counties.
Alternate names:
Dongshan Lalu Yi, Lalo, Lalopa, Misaba. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Western Yi 
More information.

Yi, Western Lalu

38,000
 (2002)
Western Yunnan, in Baoshan, Shidian, Zhenkang, Longling, and Luxi counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Western Yi 
More information.

Yi, Wuding-Luquan

210,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Luquan, Wuding, Yongren, Lufeng, Yuanmou, Qujing, Xundian, and Huize counties, and in Huili county of southern Sichuan.
Alternate names: Wu-Lu Yi, Dian Dongbei Yi.
Dialects: Luquan Naso, Wuding Naisu. Degree of similarity between dialects may need investigation. Also, degree of similarity with Naluo Yi needs investigation. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Eastern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Wumeng

40,000
 (2002)
Northwestern Yunnan, in Zhaotong, Yongshan, Daguan, and Ludian counties.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Eastern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Wusa

200,000 Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan, in Weining, Shuicheng, Hezhang, Nayong, Xuanwei, Huize, and Yiliang counties.
Alternate names:
Yuan-Mo Yi. 
Dialects: Weining Yi, Hezhang Yi, Hen-Ke Yi.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Eastern Yi 
More information.

Yi, Xishan Lalu

320,000
 (2002)
Western Yunnan, in Weishan, Yangbi, Midu, Xiaguan, Yongping, Baoshan, and Lancang counties.
Alternate names: Lalu, Lalupa. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Western Yi 
More information.

Yi, Yuanjiang-Mojiang

230,000
 (2002)
Yunnan, in Yuanyang, Mojiang, Jiangcheng, Simao, Honghe, Lchun, Jinping, Pu'er, Yuanjiang, and Xinping counties.
Alternate names:
Yuan-Mo Yi. 
Dialects: Yuanyang Nisu, Mojiang Nisu.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi, Southern Yi 
More information.

Yugur, East

3,000
 (1999 Junast)
Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Northwest Gansu Province, eastern Sunan Yugur Autonomous County, Kangle, Mati, and Dahe districts.
Alternate names: Enger, Shira Yugur, Shera Yogur, Eastern Yogor, Yogor, Ygur, Yugu, Yugar.
Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongour.
More information.

Yugur, West

2,600
 (1999
 Zhong Jinwen)
Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Sunan Yugur Autonomous County near Zhangye (Kanchow) in northwest Gansu Province.
Alternate names: Sarygh Uygur, Sarig, Ya Lu, Yellow Uighur, Sari Yogur, Yuku, Yugu, Sary-Uighur. 
Classification:
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
More information.

Zaiwa

80,000 in China. (1999
 Xu Xijian)
20,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 110,000. Yunnan Province, Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Bangwa districts in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture. Also spoken in Myanmar.
Alternate names: Tsaiwa, Atsi, Atzi, Aji, Atshi, Aci, Azi, Atsi-Maru, Szi, Xiaoshanhua. 
Dialects: Zaiwa, Langwa, Polo. Close to Maru, Lashi, and Pela. Related to Phun, Achang. Dialects have only minor phonological differences. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
More information.

Zauzou

2,300
 (1999
 Sun Hongkai)
About 10% are monolingual, mainly older adults. Ethnic population: 2,500 (1999 Sun Hongkai). Northwestern Yunnan Province, Lanping and Lushui counties.
Alternate names: Rourou, Raorou, Jaojo. 
Dialects: Bijilan, Wupijiang. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Unclassified 
More information.

Zhaba

7,700
 (1995)
Zhamai District of Yajiang (Nyagquka) County and Zhaba District of Daofu (Dawu) County, which are in the Ganzi (Garz) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of western Sichuan.
Alternate names: Zaba. 
Dialects: Close to Queyu. 
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangut-Qiang, Qiangic 
More information.

Zhuang, Northern

10,000,000
 (1992
 Edmondson)
50% are monolingual. Population includes Yongbei 1,600,000, Youjiang 732,000, Guibian 522,000, Liujiang 1,300,000, Guibei 1,300,000, Hongshuihe 2,700,000, Qiubei (not available). Northern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture. Guizhou Province, Congjiang County, southwestern Hunan and northeastern Guangdong in Lianshan Zhuang-Yao Autonomous County. Yongbei is north of the Yongjiang and Youjiang rivers in the area from Hengxian to Pingguo; Hongshuihe is along the Red Water River; Liujiang around the town of Liujiang west of Liuzhou city; Youjiang straddles the Youjiang River in the area from Tiandong to Baise; Guibian in the northwesternmost region of Guangxi (Guibian lies across north central Guangxi); and Quibei around the town of Qiubei in Yunnan.
Alternate names: Chuang, Tai Chuang, Vah Cuengh, Cangva. 
Dialects: Yongbei (Yungpei), Liujiang (Liuchiang), Youjiang (Yuchiang), Guibian (Kueipien), Qiubei (Chiupei), Hongshuihe, Guibei, Lianshan. Dialect continuum to Bouyei. 'Biao' (Pumen) is a special variety spoken in Lianshan area of northwestern Guangdong and in eastern Guangxi around He Xian. Lexical similarity 75% to 86% among the dialects, average 65% between Northern and Southern Zhuang, Northern Zhuang 49% with Dong, 44% with Laka, 32% with Buyang, 30% with Laqua and Hlai, 28% with Lati, 25% with Gelo. 
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
More information.

Zhuang, Southern

4,000,000
 (1990
 Svantesson)
About 50% monolingual. Population includes Yongnan 1,400,000, Zuojiang 1,400,000, De-Jing 980,000, Yan-Guang (not available), Wen-Ma 100,000. Southwest Guangxi and southern Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture of southeastern Yunnan Province. Yongnan is south of the Yongjiang River from Yongning in the east to Long'an in the west; Zuojiang is in southwestern Guangxi around Tiandeng, Daxin, Chongzuo, Longzhou, Pingxiang, and Ningming, down to the Viet Nam border; De-Jing is in southwestern Guangxi around Debao, Jingxi, and Napo, down to the Yunnan and Viet Nam borders; Wen-Ma is in southeastern Yunnan Province south of Wenshan and Malipo, but excluding an area west of Maguan; Yan-Guang is in southeastern Yunnan Province north of Wenshan and Malipo, including Yanshan and north to Guangnan, and west of Maguan along the Viet Nam border.
Dialects:
Yongnan (Yungnan), Zuojiang (Tsochiang), De-Jing (Teching), Yan-Guang (Yenkuang), Wen-Ma (Wenma). Dialect continuum into Viet Nam. Speakers of the varieties between the Youjiang River and the Viet Nam border (particularly Zuojiang and De-Jing) refer to the language as 'Tho', share many regional characteristics, and are intelligible with the Tay ("Tho") of Viet Nam. The Yan-Guang and De-Jing varieties are intelligible with Nung (and Tay) of Viet Nam, and refer to their language as 'Nong'. Cao Lan may be close to the Yan-Guang dialect (if found in Chinathat name is not used) of Viet Nam. Lexical similarity 70% between dialects, 65% with Northern Zhuang.
Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
More information.

       Print

Bron:   Ethnologfue - Languages of the World